Presentation on theme: "EVIDENCE, CRITIC, & ALTERNATIVES TO PSYCHOANALYSIS"— Presentation transcript:
1EVIDENCE, CRITIC, & ALTERNATIVES TO PSYCHOANALYSIS RESEARCH EVIDENCEWhy is psychoanalytic theory so difficult to test?Examples of empirical studiesMAIN LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOANALYSISBEYOND FREUDNeoanalytic approach: Jung, Adler, HorneyHumanistic approach: Rogers, Maslow
2complexity (psychoanalysis = ‘grand theory’ of human nature) RESEARCH EVIDENCEWhy are psychodynamic concepts so difficult to test?complexity (psychoanalysis = ‘grand theory’ of human nature)vaguenesscircularity
3Examples of well-known empirical studies: RESEARCH EVIDENCEExamples of well-known empirical studies:Rosenzweig (1943): study of Zeigarnick effect vs. repressionSilverman (1976): studies of subliminal psychodynamic activation
4MAIN LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Overemphasis on the pastOveremphasis on internal factors (wishes, conflicts, etc.)Pessimistic view of human natureGender bias (review male and female Oedipus complex + see Horney)
5Neo-analytic approach: Jung, Adler, Horney BEYOND FREUDNeo-analytic approach: Jung, Adler, HorneyFocus shifts from the Id to the EgoView of personality development as more continuous, life-long processRecognition of the role of society and culture in shaping personality
6CARL JUNG (1875-1961) Principle of Opposites Collective Unconscious: contains ARCHETYPESArchetypesEXAMPLES OF ‘MANDALA’ : archetypal image representing the Self.
7ALFRED ADLER ( )Innate ‘Inferiority Complex’ ‘Drive for Perfection’
8KAREN HORNEY ( )Innate ‘need for love’ ‘basic anxiety’ (innate fear of being isolated and helpless in a hostile world)Neurotic patterns of interpersonal behavior:1. Moving towards people(neurotic need for affection, approval)2. Moving against people(neurotic need for power, dominance, exploitation)3. Moving away from others(neurotic need for independence, self-sufficient, solitude)Feminist critic of psychoanalysis:‘it’s culture, not anatomy!’ (women envy having status, not a penis)‘men have womb envy’
9Humanistic/Phenomenological approach: Rogers, Maslow BEYOND FREUDHumanistic/Phenomenological approach: Rogers, MaslowMAIN EMPHASES:1. Study of subjective experience: emphasis on the meaning one gives to events, individual's frame of reference2. Individual potential and self-determination: People are intrinsically good, have great potential for growth and the power of becoming what their best selves (self-actualization).3. Self-concept/Identity: Who am I?
10CARL ROGERS (1902-1987) SELF-ACTUALIZATION “… people seem to be constantly struggling to be their ‘real’ self” (a more positive, balanced, constructive identity)SELF-ACTUALIZATIONConstant striving to identify and develop one's capacities and talents (not in competition with others but to become "the best me I can be”)…. it develops from havingUNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARDBeing valued and accepted by others for whom one is (opposite: conditions of worth)
11ABRAHAM MASLOW (1908-1970) HIERARCHY OF NEEDS PREPOTENCY OF NEEDS PEAK EXPERIENCE
12SELF-ACTUALIZING NEEDS PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS PEACK EXPERIENCE: doing/seeing something that feels beautiful, the right thing to do, empowering, meaningfulSELF-ACTUALIZINGNEEDSPSYCHOLOGICALNEEDSPREPOTENCY OF NEEDSFUNDAMENTAL NEEDS
13Characteristics of Self-Actualizing Persons 1. Realistically Oriented.2. Accept Self and Others for What They Are.3. Spontaneity.4. Problem-Centered vs. Self Centered.5. Somewhat Detached -- Need Privacy.6. Autonomous / Independent.7. Appreciate People and Things.8. History of Profound / Mystical Experiences.9. Identify with Humanity.10. Intimate Relationships Profound and Emotional11. Democratic Values.12. Does not Confuse Means with Ends.13. Philosophical Sense of Humor.14. Creative.15. Non-conforming.16. Transcend Environment -- Do not Just Cope.