Presentation on theme: "1 EVIDENCE, CRITIC, & ALTERNATIVES TO PSYCHOANALYSIS RESEARCH EVIDENCE Why is psychoanalytic theory so difficult to test? Examples of empirical studies."— Presentation transcript:
1 EVIDENCE, CRITIC, & ALTERNATIVES TO PSYCHOANALYSIS RESEARCH EVIDENCE Why is psychoanalytic theory so difficult to test? Examples of empirical studies MAIN LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS BEYOND FREUD Neoanalytic approach: Jung, Adler, Horney Humanistic approach: Rogers, Maslow
2 RESEARCH EVIDENCE Why are psychodynamic concepts so difficult to test? complexity (psychoanalysis = ‘grand theory’ of human nature) vagueness circularity
3 RESEARCH EVIDENCE Examples of well-known empirical studies: Rosenzweig (1943): study of Zeigarnick effect vs. repression Silverman (1976): studies of subliminal psychodynamic activation
4 MAIN LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Overemphasis on the past Overemphasis on internal factors (wishes, conflicts, etc.) Pessimistic view of human nature Gender bias (review male and female Oedipus complex + see Horney)
5 BEYOND FREUD Neo-analytic approach: Jung, Adler, Horney Focus shifts from the Id to the Ego View of personality development as more continuous, life-long process Recognition of the role of society and culture in shaping personality
6 CARL JUNG ( ) Principle of Opposites Collective Unconscious : contains ARCHETYPES Archetypes EXAMPLES OF ‘MANDALA’ : archetypal image representing the Self.
7 ALFRED ADLER ( ) Innate ‘Inferiority Complex’ ‘Drive for Perfection’
8 KAREN HORNEY ( ) Innate ‘need for love’ ‘basic anxiety’ (innate fear of being isolated and helpless in a hostile world) Neurotic patterns of interpersonal behavior: 1. Moving towards people (neurotic need for affection, approval) 2. Moving against people (neurotic need for power, dominance, exploitation) 3. Moving away from others (neurotic need for independence, self-sufficient, solitude) Feminist critic of psychoanalysis: ‘it’s culture, not anatomy!’ (women envy having status, not a penis) ‘men have womb envy’
9 BEYOND FREUD Humanistic/Phenomenological approach: Rogers, Maslow MAIN EMPHASES: 1. Study of subjective experience: emphasis on the meaning one gives to events, individual's frame of reference 2. Individual potential and self-determination: People are intrinsically good, have great potential for growth and the power of becoming what their best selves (self-actualization). 3. Self-concept/Identity: Who am I?
10 CARL ROGERS ( ) “… people seem to be constantly struggling to be their ‘real’ self” (a more positive, balanced, constructive identity) SELF-ACTUALIZATION Constant striving to identify and develop one's capacities and talents (not in competition with others but to become "the best me I can be”) …. it develops from having UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD Being valued and accepted by others for whom one is (opposite: conditions of worth)
11 ABRAHAM MASLOW ( ) HIERARCHY OF NEEDS PREPOTENCY OF NEEDS PEAK EXPERIENCE
12 FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS SELF-ACTUALIZING NEEDS PEACK EXPERIENCE: doing/seeing something that feels beautiful, the right thing to do, empowering, meaningful PREPOTENCY OF NEEDS
13 Characteristics of Self-Actualizing Persons 1. Realistically Oriented. 2. Accept Self and Others for What They Are. 3. Spontaneity. 4. Problem-Centered vs. Self Centered. 5. Somewhat Detached -- Need Privacy. 6. Autonomous / Independent. 7. Appreciate People and Things. 8. History of Profound / Mystical Experiences. 9. Identify with Humanity. 10. Intimate Relationships Profound and Emotional 11. Democratic Values. 12. Does not Confuse Means with Ends. 13. Philosophical Sense of Humor. 14. Creative. 15. Non-conforming. 16. Transcend Environment -- Do not Just Cope.