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CHAPTER 6 GROUPS AND FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS. Groups are classified by how they develop and function. Primary groups meet emotional and support needs, while.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 6 GROUPS AND FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS. Groups are classified by how they develop and function. Primary groups meet emotional and support needs, while."— Presentation transcript:


2 Groups are classified by how they develop and function. Primary groups meet emotional and support needs, while secondary groups are task focused. SEC 1: PRIMARY & SECONDARY GROUPS Primary group Secondary group

3 Group: at least two people who have one or more goals in common and share common ways of thinking and behaving In regular contact with one another Take one another’s behavior into account Tend to draw lines around themselves, creating insiders and outsiders. These lines are known as boundaries.

4 Social Category: people who share a social characteristic Examples: women, fathers, students, artists Social Aggregate: People temporarily in the same place at the same time Examples: students in the lunch line, people at a concert, contestants in a talent competition

5 Primary Group: People who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one another’s company Characterized by primary relationships (interactions that are intimate, personal, and fulfilling) Conditions that favor development of primary groups/relationships Small size Face-to-face contact Continuous contact Proper social environment

6 Primary Group (continued) Functions of primary group 1.Emotional support 2.Socialization 3.Encourages conformity

7 Secondary Group: People who only share a part of their lives while focusing on a goal or task Secondary relationships: impersonal interactions involving only limited parts of our personalities -Secondary groups are about accomplishing a task NOT about establishing friendship but they can include some primary relationships.

8 Choose one primary and one secondary group from your Social Map. For each group: Describe the group and the boundaries of the group as you see them. Are the boundaries tight or loose? Are other allowed in? If so, how does one become a part of the group?

9 Reference groups help us evaluate ourselves and form identities. In-groups and out-groups divide people into “we” and “they.” Social networks extend our contacts and let us form links to many other people. SEC 2: OTHER GROUPS & NETWORKS

10 Reference Group: group used for self-evaluation and the formation of attitudes, values, beliefs and norms ◦ Examples: families, teachers, classmates, political groups, sports teams, bands ◦ A person can consider a group to be a reference group without being a member. ◦ Reference groups are not necessarily positive (i.e. gangs).

11 In-group: exclusive group which demands intense loyalty  Norms compel members to exclude others. Out-group: a group targeted by an in-group for opposition, antagonism, or competition  People get divided into “we” and “they”

12 Group boundaries: allow the in- group to tell who is “in” and who is not “in” In-groups and out-groups can form in schools, athletics, neighborhoods, or even countries at war. ◦ This is often a symbol like clothes or slang or can be an action like a handshake. New members may be taught the boundaries in an initiation ceremony Boundaries are maintained by demanding intense loyalty from group members

13  In-group is NOT the same as “popular group.”  In group is the group that a person has an affinity or closeness for (example: Mrs. Downs and The Ohio State Buckeyes)  Out-group is NOT the same as “unpopular group.”  Out-group is the group that a person has a disconnect with, often a negative bias (example: Mrs. Downs and Michigan Wolverines)

14 Social Networks: a web of social relationships that join a person to other people and groups It includes groups, but is not a group in and of itself Functions: Provide a sense of purpose and belonging Provide support in the form of advice or help Useful for entering the job market YOU MOM DAD MOM’S FRIEND & FUTURE BOSS DAD’S FRIEND & FUTURE IN-LAW BABY BRO DAD’S FRIEND DAD’S FRIEND’S FRIEND & YOUR FRIEND’S DAD FRIEND FRIEND’S MOMBRO’S BABYSITTER & YOUR FRIEND’S FRIEND

15 Main Idea Five types of social interaction are basic to group life: 1.Cooperation 2. Conflict 3. Social exchange 4. Coercion 5. Conformity.

16 Cooperation Interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach a goal Most likely to occur when reaching the goals requires the best use of limited resources (like in emergency situations) The goal, may or may not, even benefit those who are cooperating

17 Conflict Interaction aimed at defeating an opponent Usually considered disruptive, but it can also be socially beneficial It may promote cooperation and unity within opposing groups It may draw attention to social inequalities and cause a change in values, beliefs and norms

18 Social Exchange A voluntary action is performed in the expectation of getting a reward in return The exchange relationship is based on reciprocity

19 Coercion Interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to behave in a particular way Central element of coercion is DOMINATION Physical – imprisonment, torture Social – ridicule, rejection, ostracize

20 Conformity Behavior that matches group expectations Most people do conform to group pressure (Asch, 1955) {Asch Experiment Video} – (see: handout)Asch Experiment Video Groupthink: self-deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs and created by group pressure to conform Milgrim Experiment (see: handout) ABC Primetime – Basic Instincts –Milgrim Revisited (see: handout) Stanford Prison Experiment (see: handout)

21 A formal organization is a group created to achieve one or more long-term goals A bureaucracy is a formal organization based on rationality and efficiency. Characteristics include: Division of labor based on specialization Hierarchy of power System of rules and procedures Written records and activities Promotions are based on merit and qualifications Often seen as impersonal, but designed to protect individuals from abuses

22 Primary relationships do form within formal organizations Informal organization: group within formal organization in which relationships are guided by norms, rituals or sentiments that are not part of the formal organization

23 Iron Law of Oligarchy (Robert Michels, 1911) Power increasingly becomes more concentrated in the hands of fewer individuals within the organization

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