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Ancient River Valley Civilizations Global 2R Spring 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient River Valley Civilizations Global 2R Spring 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient River Valley Civilizations Global 2R Spring 2009

2 Pre-history Pre-historic = before written records Two periods of pre-history to know –Paleolithic –Neolithic

3 Pre-history Paleolithic –(Old) Stone age period Stone primary material for tools –Hunter-gathers –Nomadic lifestyle

4 Pre-history Neolithic Age –(New) stone age Stone still primary tool material Agriculture Domestication of animals Some settlement Some nomadic groups

5 Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age 1 st Agricultural Revolution

6 Neolithic Age Develop Civilization People Start to Settle

7 Civilization A form of culture, characterized by cities,specialized workers, complex institutions, record-keeping and advanced technology

8 Civilization To be a civilization, society must have a majority of these: –CitiesSpecialized labor –GovernmentScience & tech –ReligionArt –TaxesSocial classes –Written language

9 River valley Civilizations Helpful Hint: –Know one of these cold –Be very familiar with a second –Have heard of a third

10 Tigris & Euphrates Located in modern Iraq Known as Mesopotamia (land between 2 rivers) Known as Fertile Crescent Look for the only green in the brownish Middle east on the map Rivers empty into Persian Gulf


12 Tigris & Euphrates The geography does not help –Unpredictable flooding –No natural barriers to invasion –Plenty of fresh water for farming and drinking –Access to trade/travel & cultural diffusion –Silt deposited by rivers

13 Tigris & Euphrates Geography does not help, but problems solved –For defense, walls of mud bricks were built –Trade of grain, cloth and tools brought in natural raw materials like stone, wood and metal

14 Tigris & Euphrates Main crops grown were barley & wheat Surpluses produced led to development of different civilizations in the region

15 Tigris & Euphrates Cities associated with Mesopotamia –Sumer –Akkad –Babylon –Ur

16 Tigris & Euphrates Sumer –Polytheism –Run by soldiers –Temples called Ziggurats –Invented sail, plow, wheel & 1 st to use bronze –Developed geometry & arithmetic

17 Tigris & Euphrates Sumer –Developed arches, columns, ramps –Developed cuneiform (wedge writing in wet mud which was allowed to dry)

18 Tigris & Euphrates Akkad –Sargon of Akkad conquered Sumer –Created worlds first empire –Dynasty lasted 200 years

19 Tigris & Euphrates Babylon –Based on Euphrates river –Empire hit peak under Hammurabi –Hammurabis Code

20 Tigris & Euphrates Hammurabis Code –Needed single, unified code of law to unify people –Written in stone –Placed throughout the empire –eye for an eye –Law applied to everyone, but applied differently to men/women & rich/poor

21 Page 33


23 Written Law Codes 10 Commandments Hammurabis Code Dracos Code 12 Tables Justinians Code Napoleonic Code

24 Nile River Valley Geographic Issues –Floods predictably (develop calendar) –River deposits silt on banks –Access to travel/trade –Grow papyrus (turn into paper) –River flows north into Mediterranean Sea –Egyptians forced to live close to river (little cultural diffusion)


26 Nile River Valley Egypt = gift of the Nile Without the river there is no Egyptian civilization Silt very fertile Desert very harsh Irrigation ditches to water crops Surpluses led to civilization

27 Nile River Valley Egypt –Polytheism Kings (pharaohs were god-kings) Egyptian government was theocracy (based on religious teaching/rules)

28 Nile River Valley Egypt –Pyramids were actually tombs for pharaohs –Pharaohs were mummified –Bodies dried and preserved for use in the afterlife

29 Nile River Valley Egypt –Writing developed called hieroglyphics Glyphs are symbols/pictures First written on stone Hieroglyphics written on early paper made from papyrus

30 Nile River Valley Egypt –Developed very accurate calendar –Developed arithmetic & geometry –First to use stone columns –Developed early medical procedures for broken bones, wounds & fevers

31 Indus River Valley Indus = India (you cannot forget this!!) Indus River starts in Himalaya mountains & flows to Arabian Sea Himalayas natural boundary Unpredictable flooding


33 Indus River Valley Indus sites not fully discovered yet No kings/queens known Few available records Was largest empire until Persia develops 1000 years later

34 Indus River Valley Two main cities of the Indus Valley Harappa Mohenjo-Daro Both carefully planned & laid out in a grid pattern Structures built of oven-fired bricks Homes had indoor plumbing

35 Indus River Valley Archaeologists believe the 2 cities had strong organized government Food seemed to be in good supply City planning indicates development of mathematical skills Indus first to cultivate cotton Polytheistic religious beliefs

36 Huang He River Valley Chinas geography has isolated it Chinese developed belief that China was the center of the Earth & source of all civilization China to south & southwest hemmed in by Tien Shan & Himalaya mountains

37 Huang He River Valley Chinas history began in Huang He Valley People learned to farm during the Neolithic Age The yellow soil particles in the river give it its name Yellow Also known as Chinas Sorrow because of the unpredictable flooding

38 Huang He River Valley The flooding is due in part to the loess in the water that raises the level of the river Flooding has often been disastrous First Chinese in the valley to develop were the Shang Zhou overthrew the Shang Developed Mandate of Heaven idea

39 Huang He River Valley Mandate of Heaven says that the gods allowed a dynasty to rule until that dynasty got old & corrupt New dynasty was given new Mandate of Heaven to over throw old This changing of dynasties is called the Dynastic Cycle

40 Dynastic Cycle New Dynasty Brings peace Builds roads Land to peasants Protects people Too many taxes No protection Unfair treatment No building Old Dynasty Floods Quakes Revolts Invaders Problems

41 Huang He River Valley By 1000 BC Chinese had develop silk production Chinese also produced first books under the Zhou Also produced porcelain, writing, coined money and cast iron

42 Other Civilizations to Consider Indo-European Civilizations –Aryans –Hittites

43 Aryans Developed Caste System –Lighter skin, higher caste –Aryans blended cultures –Brought in Hinduism Believed in reincarnation Karma & dharma Cows are sacred

44 Hittites Centered in Anatolia (modern Turkey, Asia Minor) Developed iron technology Developed the chariot which changed warfare dramatically

45 Other Civilizations to Consider Fertile Crescent –Phoenicians –Coast of eastern Mediterranean Sea –Pop-Eyes of the ancient world –Carriers of civilization –Created alphabet (Hooked on Phonics)

46 Hebrews Centered in the area of modern Israel/Palestine Hebrews are first monotheistic people –Torah is holy book (same as Old Testament of Christian Bible) –Abraham starts religion –God is Yahweh –Hebrews are Gods chosen people –Hebrews have a covenant with God

47 Hebrews Enslaved in Egypt –Led out of Egypt by Moses –Moses presents Hebrews with Gods rules known as 10 Commandments –Settled in modern Israel

48 Hebrews Romans show up in Middle East –Jews forced out between 75 & 135 AD –Known as period of Diaspora (dispersal) –Jews spread from Palestine to eastern Europe

49 Final Thoughts How are these groups similar? How are they different? What did they contribute to the world? What impact did geography have on each society?

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