Presentation on theme: "River Valley Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:
1 River Valley Civilizations 3500 to 500 BCNile RiverThe “Cradles of Civilization”
2 Where did the earliest civilizations develop? River valleys
3 Why did ancient civilizations develop in river valleys? They had rich soil for agriculturePeriodic flooding left silt which made the soil rich in nutrients
4 Geographic Barriers (mountains, deserts, seas, jungles,etc.) Helped protect many early civilizations from nomadic invaders
5 Where were the earliest civilizations located and when did they exist? MIE
6 River Valley Civilizations (3500 BC to 500 BC)Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys. (Southwest Asia)Egypt in the Nile River Valley and Delta (Africa)India in the Indus River Valley in South AsiaChina in the Huang He Valley (East Asia).From west to east “EMIC”
7 What were the geographic, social, political, and economic characteristics of the Ancient River Valley civilizations?
8 Mesopotamia The land between two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) Part of the Fertile Crescent
9 Fertile CrescentArc of fertile land stretching from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean SeaMesopotamia
10 Mesopotamia Present day Iraq (Middle East). What present-day countries are in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is in what present-day region?
11 Sumer Protected by mountains, deserts and the Persian Gulf The first of many civilizations to arise in MesopotamiaProtected by mountains, deserts and the Persian GulfWhat was the first civilization to arise in Mesopotamia?
12 Sumer Sumer was made up of 12 independent city- states City-state: A city and the surrounding land it controlledWhat type of government was found in Sumer? What is a city-state?
13 Mesopotamia had a dry climate IrrigationMesopotamia had a dry climateIrrigation was required to bring water from the rivers to the fields during the dry summer monthsWhat was the climate like in Mesopotamia? How did they bring water to the fields?
14 First WritingInvented the first written language: cuneiform (wedge writing)
22 Pictures could stand for sounds as well as ideas HieroglyphicsMeans sacred carvingPictures could stand for sounds as well as ideas
23 Pharaohs Egyptian god-kings They had absolute power (complete control) Thought to be responsible for making the sun rise, the Nile flood, and crops grow.Believed responsible for making the sun rise, the Nile to flood, and crops to grow
24 ReligionLike other River Valley peoples, Egyptians were polytheistic (believed in many gods).
25 Class SystemEgypt, had a rigid class system and slavery was accepted.
35 Also called the Yellow River and the River of Sorrows (yellow silt caused flooding) Westerners have dubbed it "China's Sorrow," because over the centuries it has killed more people than any other river in the world. In 1887 flooding killed nearly two million people, in 1931 the death toll was almost four million, and in 1938 it was almost one million. Much of the problem stems from the high silt content of the river -- in some stretches as much as 60% by weight. Millions of tons of yellow mud choke the channel, causing the river to overflow and change course. In its lower reaches, the river bed has actually become higher than the level of the surrounding countryside. Water is held in by dikes of ever increasing height, some reaching 30 feet and more.Huang He
36 Flooding of the Huang He Satellite imagesbeforeafter
38 China was ruled by a succession of ruling families called dynasties (Early dynasties: Shang and Zhou)What is a dynasty?Shang Dynasty
39 Divine Rulers Chinese rulers were considered divine (god-like). What does divine mean?Divine Rulers
40 They served under a mandate of heaven (approval of the gods) only as long as their rule was just The Zhou dynasty claimed the mandate of heaven when they overthrew the ShangMandate of Heaven
41 Explains the rise, decline, and replacement of families of rulers Dynastic CycleExplains the rise, decline, and replacement of families of rulers
42 Chinese SilkThe Chinese invented silk cloth (made from the cocoons of silkworms).he oldest silk painting found in China was discovered in a Chu tomb at Changsha. The painting depicts the occupant of the tomb riding a dragon and ascending heaven after his death.
43 Writing Characters stood for ideas, not sounds. How did the chinese communicate with the gods? Animal bones and tortoise shells on which priests had scratched questions to the gods. The priest applied heat to the bone and then interpreted the cracks.The earliest evidence of Chinese writing is found on oracle bones.
44 Ancestor WorshipThe Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors could bring good fortune or disasterThey paid respect to family ancestors and made sacrifices in their honorBronze vessel used for sacrificial food