8 What were some characteristics of the Ancient River Valley civilizations?
9 Mesopotamia: Sumer Geography Mesopotamia was a region located in the part of the Fertile Crescent that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
10 Mesopotamia Present-day Iraq (Middle East). What present-day countries are in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is in what present-day region?
11 Protected on three sides by mountains, deserts and the Persian Gulf (but vulnerable to invaders from the north)What was the first civilization to arise in Mesopotamia?
12 Sumerian Government Sumer was the first known civilization It arose in southern Mesopotamia
13 City-state: A city and the surrounding land SumerSumer was made up of 12 independent city- states each ruled by its own king.City-state: A city and the surrounding landWhat type of government was found in Sumer? What is a city-state?
14 Cuneiform:the first written language (wedge writing)
15 Irrigation:brought water from the rivers to the fields during the dry summer monthsWhat was the climate like in Mesopotamia? How did they bring water to the fields?
23 Egypt GeographyNile Delta and Nile River Valley (Northeast Africa)
24 Nile DeltaThe delta was located in Lower Egypt (northern Egypt - lower in elevation)Delta: broad, marshy, triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of a river.
25 Protected by deserts and seas View from space shuttle
26 Egyptian GovernmentPharoahs were rulers thought to be gods. They had absolute power (complete control) over the Egyptian Empire.They were thought to be responsible for making the sun rise, the Nile flood, and crops grow.Believed responsible for making the sun rise, the Nile to flood, and crops to grow
27 Egypt, had a rigid class system and slavery was accepted.
28 Egyptian ReligionLike other River Valley peoples, Egyptians were polytheistic (believed in many gods).
29 Hieroglyphics: Pictures stood for sounds as well as ideas Egyptian WritingMeans sacred carvingHieroglyphics: Pictures stood for sounds as well as ideas
41 Also called the Yellow River and the River of Sorrows (yellow silt caused flooding) Westerners have dubbed it "China's Sorrow," because over the centuries it has killed more people than any other river in the world. In 1887 flooding killed nearly two million people, in 1931 the death toll was almost four million, and in 1938 it was almost one million. Much of the problem stems from the high silt content of the river -- in some stretches as much as 60% by weight. Millions of tons of yellow mud choke the channel, causing the river to overflow and change course. In its lower reaches, the river bed has actually become higher than the level of the surrounding countryside. Water is held in by dikes of ever increasing height, some reaching 30 feet and more.
42 Flooding of the Huang He Satellite imagesbeforeafter
43 Protected by the Gobi desert, Himalayan Mountains, Pacific Ocean, dense jungles
44 Chinese GovernmentWhat is a dynasty?China was ruled by a succession of ruling families called dynasties (Early dynasties: Shang and Zhou)
46 Chinese rulers were considered divine (god-like). What does divine mean?
47 They served under a mandate of heaven (approval of the gods) only as long as their rule was just The Zhou dynasty claimed the mandate of heaven when they overthrew the Shang
48 Explains the rise and fall of families of rulers Dynastic Cycle:Explains the rise and fall of families of rulers
49 Ancestor WorshipThe Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors could bring good fortune or disasterThey paid respect to family ancestors and made sacrifices in their honor
50 Early Chinese Achievements Silk cloth (made from the cocoons of silkworms).he oldest silk painting found in China was discovered in a Chu tomb at Changsha. The painting depicts the occupant of the tomb riding a dragon and ascending heaven after his death.
51 Writing: Characters stood for ideas, not sounds. How did the chinese communicate with the gods? Animal bones and tortoise shells on which priests had scratched questions to the gods. The priest applied heat to the bone and then interpreted the cracks.The earliest evidence of Chinese writing is found on oracle bones.
52 Irrigation:Water wheels were used to bring river water to the fields