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Early Civilizations Unit 1

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Presentation on theme: "Early Civilizations Unit 1"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Civilizations Unit 1
(3500 B.C. – 1600 B.C.)

2 Neolithic Revolution Hunter-Gatherer societies dominate most of pre-history. Change from nomadic life to farming. Domesticated animals. Have students write out a list of animals they believe are domesticated. Also, put the students in the shoes of archeologists as they look at the artifacts. Ask what they would think of these things if they were to just find them in the dirt somewhere? What does it look like to them? What were these things used for? (the wood image of a man could be associated with a voodoo doll or something like that)

3 Building Blocks of Civilization
Water Language Writing Technology

4 Characteristics of Civilizations
Organized governments Religion Jobs Social Classes Art and Architecture Public Works Writing

5 Characteristics of Civilizations
Way of keeping records. Groups of people based on power, money, or fighting ability. Roads, sewers, libraries, etc. Belief system Designed to provide order. Buildings and cultural designs. Specialized artisans

6 First Civilizations Mesopotamia (Iraq) Nile River Valley (Egypt)
Indus River Valley (India) Huang He/Yellow River (China)


8 Mesopotamia: Fertile Crescent

9 Mesopotamia: Fertile Crescent
Tigris River Euphrates River What new technology allowed these rivers to become the first area in the world where civilizations could grow? Irrigation

10 Mesopotamia: Fertile Crescent

11 Mesopotamia: Writing The writing style used by the people inhabiting the area of Mesopotamia was called Cuneiform. Cuneiform is the oldest known form of writing and consists of wedge markings forming a pictogram.

12 Mesopotamia: Cuneiform

13 Mesopotamia: City States and Empires
City States of Sumer Kingdom of Akkad Babylonian Empire

14 City States: Sumer In between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers settled a people known as Sumerians. (3500 – 2300 B.C.) The Sumerians formed City-States City States consist of a central city and the land around it. The city was there for trade and government purposes while the land was irrigated for food production. The city states of Sumer banded together for mainly one purpose, to provide protection. But another outcome of this alliance was the explosion of trade that occurred because it was safe to travel within the area of Sumerian cities.

15 City State: Example

16 Sumerian City States: Technology
The Sumerians came up with many of the basic inventions and technological advancements that we still put into use today. Inventions include: Wagon wheel Arch Potter’s wheel Sundial 12 month calendar Number system Developed bronze tools These are just some of the examples of the technology advancements of the Sumerians.

17 Kingdom of Akkad Sumerians were conquered by their northern neighbors called Akkadians. (2300 B.C.) The Akkadians were led by Sargon I

18 Kingdom of Akkad

19 Babylonian Empire Around 1800 B.C. arose another great empire with it’s capital located in the city of Babylon. Thus the name Babylonian Empire. This first Babylonian empire is most known for one of its leaders named Hammurabi. Hammurabi is the first known ruler to create a law code and have it written down.

20 Code of Hammurabi Notice the picture at the top, any guesses to what it is depicting? That is an angel bringing the law code to Hammurabi. The reasoning behind this was to add devine weight to this royal decree. Made people want to follow more and became less likely to criticize the law. This pillar was one of hundreds located around the empire.

21 Egypt Nile River Valley Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms
Pyramids and Mummies Hieroglyphics

22 Egypt: Nile River Valley
Bread Basket of the Middle east, Go over the geography with the students.

23 Egypt: Old, Middle, New Kingdoms
Old Kingdom (2700 B.C. – 2200 B.C.) Narmer of Upper Egypt conquers Lower Egypt uniting those who lived in the Nile River Valley with those who lived on the Nile Delta. Narmer created the first Egyptian dynasty and established a Theocracy to rule over his kingdom. Capital located in Memphis

24 Egypt: Old, Middle, New Kingdoms

25 Egypt: Old, Middle, New Kingdoms
Middle Kindom (2050 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) After 150 years of civil war and civil strife a new dynasty takes the throne. New capital in the city of Thebes. Ended by the Invasion of foreigners called Hyksos. Hyksos are thought to be relatives to the Israelites, this might be why Joseph might have become such a powerful guy there.

26 Egypt: Old, Middle, New Kingdoms
Ask the students to identify the weapons. Then tell them that chariots were for running people over or throwing stuff at them.

27 Egypt: Old, Middle, New Kingdoms
New Kingdom (1600 B.C. – 945 B.C.) Egyptians overcome and displaced their Hyksos rulers in 1600 B.C. and established a new dynasty. Egyptian rulers called themselves Pharaohs

28 Egypt: New Kingdom Akhenaton causes religious turmoil by switching from Polytheistic beliefs to Monotheistic beliefs. Polytheism Monotheism

29 Egypt: New Kingdom Ramses II (The Great) attempts to expand the empire but is thwarted by the Hittites. The Hittites were a people from Asia Minor (Turkey) who had conquered an empire for themselves. The Egyptians and Hittites fought over the area of Syria, neither became victors.


31 Egypt: Pyramids

32 Egypt: Pyramids

33 Egypt: Mummies

34 Mummies

35 Mummies

36 Egypt: Hieroglyphs Writing system used by the Egyptians that involved using symbols to communicate a message. Glyphs could represent objects, ideas, and sounds. Picture: photo taken at the palace in Memphis. The statue is of Ramses II.

37 Egypt: Hieroglyphs

38 Egypt: Hieroglyphs With the discovery of the Rosetta stone archeologists could finally interpret Egyptian hieroglyphs.

39 Harappa Civilization

40 Harappa Civilization The Harappan Civilization was based along the Indus river valley of present day India and Pakistan. The Harappan economy was based on Monsoons. They developed a writing system of pictograms similar to both Sumerian Cuneiform and Egyptian Hieroglyphs.

41 Harappa Civilization Notice that their area of influence reaches all the way over to Mesopotamia.

42 Harappa Civilization: Monsoons

43 Harappa Civilization: Monsoons

44 Harappa Civilization: Writing

45 Harappa Civilization The Harappan dominance of the Indus river valley lasted from 2500 B.C. to 1500 B.C. They are thought to have perished at the hands of invaders called Aryans. Explain the influence the Aryans had on Hitler and his views of a dominant race and Lebronsrum.

46 Harappa Civilization The idea of social classes based on birth was introduced by the Aryans. The system is known as the Caste System and is still in effect today. There are five different castes.

47 China Go over geography stuff with the students. Cover at least the two major rivers Yellow and Yanghtze, Himalayas, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Gobi Desert, and Indochina. May want to get specifics like lake Bikal and Hong Kong as well.

48 China: Early Dynasties
Xia Dynasty (2200 – 1760 B.C.) Collection of many early tribes who banded together for protection and trade stability. Based along the Yellow River. Shang Dynasty First Dynasty where the central government had absolute control. Mandate of Heaven. Idea that whoever is in power was put there by heaven. Mandate of Heaven is something the students must become acquainted with in order to fully understand Chinese history.

49 China: Xia Dynasty The Xia dynasty is very similar to the City States of Sumer in the fact that the various family tribes came together for protection against outside aggressors.

50 China: Early Dynasties
Most textbooks do not recognize the Xia as a real dynasty. Was thought of as a fairy tale, until new archeological evidence has proved otherwise. This is a picture of a dig site from the Xia period.

51 China: Early Dynasties
NEED TO MENTION: The fact that throughout history china is unique in the fact that when they were conquered by outsiders, the outsiders assimilated into Chinese culture. Usually the outsiders force the conquered into their customs and beliefs, not so with the Chinese.

52 China: Mandate of Heaven
Have students look over this quickly, they need to identify with what is going in each area of the cycle. Make sure they understand that the Chinese believed God was always involved with who should lead the chinese people. You may want to make correlations to our day here, ask students if there is any political leaders who are in power because God deemed it so.

53 China: Oracle Bones Have students read the short story on page 69 introducing what oracle bones are. Ask them what type of bone this is (tortoise shell). Have them make comparison between the writing they see on the oracle bones to that of Cuneiform and hieroglyphics.

54 Irrigation How do you get water from the lakes or rivers to fields such as this one? With this question in mind have students pair up and start an irrigation activity. They must come up with a way to irrigate with only a few resources at their disposal (See Irrigation Activity).

55 Irrigation Old irrigation pipe and canal in the Euphrates floodplain, looking south

56 Irrigation Du Jiang Yan irrigation system built 2,200 years ago under the Qin Dynasty.

57 Unit One Project: Create Your Own Civilization
Name your civilization. Pick a spot in the world to start your civilization and draw it out. Explain why you chose to place your civilization there. Show where at least 3 cities will go. What language will you use? You may use an existing one or make one up. Example: Harrisonish. What will your writing style be like? Will it be like English, Spanish, and German? Or will it be made up of symbols? Explain why you chose what you did. How will social classes be determined? What Jobs will you have? What will your government be like and how will you enforce order?

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