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PART 1 EARLY CIVILIZATION. Toward Civilization O How did the first civilizations evolve? O Wanderers who hunted & gathered O Learn to make simple tools.

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Presentation on theme: "PART 1 EARLY CIVILIZATION. Toward Civilization O How did the first civilizations evolve? O Wanderers who hunted & gathered O Learn to make simple tools."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART 1 EARLY CIVILIZATION

2 Toward Civilization O How did the first civilizations evolve? O Wanderers who hunted & gathered O Learn to make simple tools O Settle into tiny villages (Neolithic Period) O Developed agriculture O Tiny villages become city-based civilizations

3 Beginnings of Civilization O Eight basic features for early civilization O Cities O Well-organized central govt O Complex religion O Job specialization O Social classes O Arts & architecture O Public works O Writing

4 Organized Govts O Farming in river valley contributed to development of city govts O Why? People had to work together to build dikes, canals & irrigation ditches O Leadership is needed O Bureaucracy

5 Social Classes O Based on jobs O Priests & nobles at top (Writing develops) O Artisans or skilled craftworkers O Peasant farmers O Slaves O Empire

6 Section 2 – Africa & Asia O Egypt 5,000 years ago O River valley (Nile) of North Africa O Rich farming civilization O Pharoahs – Egyptian rulers organized strong central states O Pyramids serve as tombs O Polytheistic O Believed in an afterlife O Had a class system O Cultural Diffusion – new ideas, customs & technologies spread from one people to another

7 City-states of Ancient Sumer O 5,000 years ago O Fertile Crescent – an arc of soil-rich land between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers O Region is known as Mesopotamia O City-state – political unit made up of a city & surrounding lands O Ziggurats were popular O Social hierarchy developed (priests highest)

8 City-states of Ancient Sumer Continued O Mesopotamia – geographical crossroads O Invaders (Sargon the Great) O Hammurabi – king of Babylon O Published code of laws – 1 st major collection of laws in history O Warfare & trade in Mesopotamia spread ideas & technology in the Mediterranean world O Ironworking became common O Assyrian king founded the 1 st library O Phoenicians created an alphabet O Persians improved trade by using coins

9 Roots of Judaism O Hebrews lived in Fertile Crescent region O Monotheistic religion O Recorded events & laws (Ten Commandments, in the Torah) O Prophets – spiritual leaders who urged Hebrews to obey Gods law O Code of Ethics – moral standards of behavior O 1,000 B.C. Kingdom of Israel established O King Solomon built a temple dedicated to God O Many invasions of Hebrew kingdoms O Diaspora – scattering of people, sending Jews to different parts of the world

10 Roots of Judaism Cont O Today considered one of the major religions O Influenced Christianity & Islam O In the West known as Judeo-Christian tradition

11 Early Civilization in India O Indias 1 st civilization emerges in Indus Valley 2600 B.C. O Two main cities: Mohenjo-Daro & Harrapa O Planned cities O Plumbing systems to include baths, drains & water chutes O Severe floods will lead to decline & cities abandoned O People will migrate from central Asia in NW India (Indo-European people called Aryans)

12 Early Civilization in India O Vedas – collection of prayers, hymns & other religious teachings tell us info about the Aryans (Polytheistic) O Brahman – single spiritual power beyond many gods of the Vedas & in all living things O Mystics – devote their lives to seeking spiritual truth O Social classes (leads to a Caste system) O Priests O Warriors O Herders, farmers, artisans & merchants O Farmworkers, servants & other laborers O Dalits (Untouchables)

13 Early Civilization in China O Isolated due to distance & physical barriers O Believed they were center of the Earth O History began in Yellow River (Huang He) valley O 1650 B.C. Shang came to power in N. China O 1027 B.C. Zhou overthrew the Shang O Established a dynasty O Promoted the idea of Mandate of Heaven (divine right to rule) O Religion – complex set of beliefs (polytheistic) O Believed universe reflected a balance between two forces, yin (linked to Earth) & yang (Heaven & male forces)

14 Early Civilization in China Cont O Science & Technology O Study movement of planets O Recorded eclipses O Created an accurate calendar O Developed bronzemaking & silkmaking O Made books


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