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Presentation on theme: "PART 1 EARLY CIVILIZATION"— Presentation transcript:


2 Toward Civilization How did the first civilizations evolve?
Wanderers who hunted & gathered Learn to make simple tools Settle into tiny villages (Neolithic Period) Developed agriculture Tiny villages become city-based civilizations

3 Beginnings of Civilization
Eight basic features for early civilization Cities Well-organized central gov’t Complex religion Job specialization Social classes Arts & architecture Public works Writing

4 Organized Govt’s Farming in river valley contributed to development of city govt’s Why? People had to work together to build dikes, canals & irrigation ditches Leadership is needed Bureaucracy

5 Social Classes Based on jobs Empire
Priests & nobles at top (Writing develops) Artisans or skilled craftworkers Peasant farmers Slaves Empire

6 Section 2 – Africa & Asia Egypt 5,000 years ago
River valley (Nile) of North Africa Rich farming civilization Pharoahs – Egyptian rulers organized strong central states Pyramids serve as tombs Polytheistic Believed in an afterlife Had a class system Cultural Diffusion – new ideas, customs & technologies spread from one people to another

7 City-states of Ancient Sumer
5,000 years ago Fertile Crescent – an arc of soil-rich land between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers Region is known as Mesopotamia City-state – political unit made up of a city & surrounding lands Ziggurats were popular Social hierarchy developed (priests highest)

8 City-states of Ancient Sumer Continued
Mesopotamia – geographical crossroads Invaders (Sargon the Great) Hammurabi – king of Babylon Published code of laws – 1st major collection of laws in history Warfare & trade in Mesopotamia spread ideas & technology in the Mediterranean world Ironworking became common Assyrian king founded the 1st library Phoenicians created an alphabet Persians improved trade by using coins

9 Roots of Judaism Hebrews lived in Fertile Crescent region
Monotheistic religion Recorded events & laws (Ten Commandments, in the Torah) Prophets – spiritual leaders who urged Hebrews to obey God’s law Code of Ethics – moral standards of behavior 1,000 B.C. Kingdom of Israel established King Solomon built a temple dedicated to God Many invasions of Hebrew kingdoms Diaspora – scattering of people, sending Jews to different parts of the world

10 Roots of Judaism Con’t Today considered one of the major religions
Influenced Christianity & Islam In the West known as Judeo-Christian tradition

11 Early Civilization in India
India’s 1st civilization emerges in Indus Valley 2600 B.C. Two main cities: Mohenjo-Daro & Harrapa Planned cities Plumbing systems to include baths, drains & water chutes Severe floods will lead to decline & cities abandoned People will migrate from central Asia in NW India (Indo-European people called Aryans)

12 Early Civilization in India
Vedas – collection of prayers, hymns & other religious teachings tell us info about the Aryans (Polytheistic) Brahman – single spiritual power beyond many gods of the Vedas & in all living things Mystics – devote their lives to seeking spiritual truth Social classes (leads to a Caste system) Priests Warriors Herders, farmers, artisans & merchants Farmworkers, servants & other laborers Dalits (Untouchables)

13 Early Civilization in China
Isolated due to distance & physical barriers Believed they were center of the Earth History began in Yellow River (Huang He) valley 1650 B.C. Shang came to power in N. China 1027 B.C. Zhou overthrew the Shang Established a dynasty Promoted the idea of Mandate of Heaven (divine right to rule) Religion – complex set of beliefs (polytheistic) Believed universe reflected a balance between two forces, yin (linked to Earth) & yang (Heaven & male forces)

14 Early Civilization in China Con’t
Science & Technology Study movement of planets Recorded eclipses Created an accurate calendar Developed bronzemaking & silkmaking Made books


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