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History & Use of Biological Classification

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1 History & Use of Biological Classification

grouping based on similarities Taxonomy: Branch of Biology The science of classifying/grouping and naming of organisms

3 Aristotle’s Classification Scheme
Greek philosopher who developed first classification system Divided all organisms into 2 GROUPS: Non motile (plants) Motile (animals) Plants grouped by: size (small, medium, large) Animals grouped by: where they lived (air, water, land)

4 Binomial Nomenclature
A system for naming organisms by structure created by Linnaeus: Although Linneaus didn’t realize it, by classifying organisms by structure he was also classifying them by evolutionary relationship Written in Latin Includes the organisms : Genus: CAPITALIZED (noun) means beginning Species: lowercase (adj.) Example: Homo (man) sapien (wise/thinking)

5 Scientific & Common Names
Scientific Name: genus and species name Iguana iguana Felis domesticus Common name: Organism is commonly called Not used in the scientific community Green Iguana Domestic Cat

6 The “New” Evolutionary Classification
Categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent Not just physical similarities This new method is called: Evolutionary Classification Scientists classify organisms based on their Evolutionary Beginnings

7 Cladograms A diagram that shows evolutionary relationships
Cladograms are useful tools Help scientists understand how one lineage branched from another in the course of evolution

8 Traditional Classification vs. Cladogram
Evolutionary Decent: Class Physical Similarities Conical Shells Appendages Crustaceans Gastropoda Crab Barnacle Limpet Molten exoskeleton Segmentation Free-swimming larvae TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION CLADOGRAM

9 Kingdoms Second broadest of all taxa Grouped into 3 domains:
Bacteria – Eubacteria 2. Archae- Archeabacteria 3. Eukarya: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

10 Characteristics of the 6 Kingdoms
1. Kingdom Eubacteria: a. all microscopic prokaryotes b. almost all are unicellular c. non-motile d. commonly called bacteria 2. Kingdom Archaebacteria: a. prokaryotes b. live in extreme environment

11 3. Kingdom Protista: a. eukaryotes b. uni and multicellular
c. live in moist environments d. most are simple, microscopic & mobile *Examples: paramecium, amoeba, euglena & algae

12 b. Uni and Multicellular c. Consumers that do not move
4. Kingdom Fungi: a. Eukaryotes b. Uni and Multicellular c. Consumers that do not move d. Decompose dead organisms &/or waste products *Examples: mushrooms, molds, & mildew

13 5. Kingdom Plantae: a. stationary, multicelluar eukaryotes
b. Photosynthetic c. Autotrophs *(make own food) *Examples: plants

14 6. Kingdom Animalia: a. Multicellular
b. Consumers that eat & digest other organisms (heterotrophs) c. May be herbivores, carnivores & omnivores *Examples: Animals

15 Complete Classification of Humans
Domain: (Eukarya) Kingdom: (Animalia) Phylum: (Chordata) Dorsal nerve cord-cartilage Vertebrae Subphylum: (Vertebrata) Class: (Mammalia) 6. Order: (Primates) 7. Family: (Hominid) 8. Genus: (Homo) 9. Species: (sapien)

16 Quiz 2 1. The branch of biology in which we classify organisms is called Classonomy b. taxonomy c. botany 2. Which is NOT a domain? Eubacteria b. Archaebacteria c. Monera 3. Which is the proper way to write a scientific name? Homo sapien b. homo sapien c. Homo sapien 4. A diagram that shows evolutionary relationships is called a Dichotomous key b. cladogram c. taxonomy 5. To which kingdom would amoebas & paramecium belong? a. Fungi b. Plantae c. Protista

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