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The science of naming organisms.

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Presentation on theme: "The science of naming organisms."— Presentation transcript:

1 The science of naming organisms.
Taxonomy The science of naming organisms.

2 Aristotle Plant or animal? If an animal, does it
Fly Swim Crawl Simple classifications Used common names

3 Carolus Linnaeus Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials Developed binomial nomenclature First word = genus name Second word = species name

4 Why binomial nomenclature?
Much easier than a 10+ word name under old “polynomial system” Same name no matter where you go Less confusion Binomial = SCIENTIFIC NAME

5 Scientific Names You Need to Know
Homo sapiens Canis lupus Felis domesticus Pan pan

6 Taxonomic hierarchy Names organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific

7 All organisms classified in a hierarchy
Kingdom (broadest) Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (most specific)

8 Notes assignment: Look up the classification for humans for all seven hierarchies and write them below.

9 What is a species anyway?
Biological species concept A group of actually or potentially breeding natural groups that are reproductively isolated from other groups. Ernst Mayr, 1924 BSC’s problems Hybrids Sterile offspring of two different species Asexual organisms

10 How many are out there? Scientists currently estimate that
There are 10 million species worldwide Over 5 million live in the tropics Most unnamed species are small or microscopic

11 Why is taxonomy useful? Helps prevent confusion among scientists
Helps to show how organisms are related Can be used to reconstruct phylogenies – evolutionary histories – of an organism or group

12 A note on cladograms Graph showing when different groups diverged from a common ancestral line Points where they diverge are often noted with a feature that was different between ancestral group and a “new” feature in the group that split off.

13 Bird Cladogram

14 The 6 kingdoms Prokaryotes (Used to be 1 kingdom, Monera) Eukaryotes
Archaebacteria Eubacteria Eukaryotes Fungi Protista Animal Plantae

15 Overview of the 6 kingdoms
Archaebacteria Unicellular Live in extreme environments Prokaryotic Eubacteria “Common bacteria”

16 Overview of the 6 kingdoms
Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular or colonial Lots of different life styles Fungi Cell walls made of chitin Multicellular External heterotrophs

17 Overview of the 6 kingdoms
Plantae Eukaryotic & Multicellular Cell walls made of cellulose Autotrophic Animalia No cell walls Internal heterotrophs

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