Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy The science of naming organisms.. Aristotle Plant or animal? If an animal, does it –Fly –Swim –Crawl Simple classifications Used common names."— Presentation transcript:
Taxonomy The science of naming organisms.
Aristotle Plant or animal? If an animal, does it –Fly –Swim –Crawl Simple classifications Used common names
Carolus Linnaeus Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials Developed binomial nomenclature First word = genus name Second word = species name
Why binomial nomenclature? Much easier than a 10+ word name under old polynomial system Same name no matter where you go Less confusion Binomial = SCIENTIFIC NAME
Scientific Names You Need to Know Homo sapiens Canis lupus Felis domesticus Pan pan
Taxonomic hierarchy Names organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific
All organisms classified in a hierarchy Kingdom (broadest) Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (most specific)
Notes assignment: Look up the classification for humans for all seven hierarchies and write them below.
What is a species anyway? Biological species concept –A group of actually or potentially breeding natural groups that are reproductively isolated from other groups. »Ernst Mayr, 1924 BSCs problems –Hybrids Sterile offspring of two different species –Asexual organisms
How many are out there? Scientists currently estimate that –There are 10 million species worldwide –Over 5 million live in the tropics –Most unnamed species are small or microscopic
Why is taxonomy useful? Helps prevent confusion among scientists Helps to show how organisms are related Can be used to reconstruct phylogenies – evolutionary histories – of an organism or group
A note on cladograms Graph showing when different groups diverged from a common ancestral line Points where they diverge are often noted with a feature that was different between ancestral group and a new feature in the group that split off.
The 6 kingdoms Prokaryotes (Used to be 1 kingdom, Monera) –Archaebacteria –Eubacteria Eukaryotes –Fungi –Protista –Animal –Plantae
Overview of the 6 kingdoms Archaebacteria –Unicellular –Live in extreme environments –Prokaryotic Eubacteria –Unicellular –Prokaryotic –Common bacteria
Overview of the 6 kingdoms Protista –Eukaryotic –Unicellular or colonial –Lots of different life styles Fungi –Cell walls made of chitin –Eukaryotic –Multicellular –External heterotrophs
Overview of the 6 kingdoms Plantae –Eukaryotic & Multicellular –Cell walls made of cellulose –Autotrophic Animalia –Eukaryotic & Multicellular –No cell walls –Internal heterotrophs