Presentation on theme: "The science of naming organisms."— Presentation transcript:
1The science of naming organisms. TaxonomyThe science of naming organisms.
2Aristotle Plant or animal? If an animal, does it FlySwimCrawlSimple classificationsUsed common names
3Carolus LinnaeusDescribed organisms with two word names, instead of polynomialsDeveloped binomial nomenclatureFirst word = genus nameSecond word = species name
4Why binomial nomenclature? Much easier than a 10+ word name under old “polynomial system”Same name no matter where you goLess confusionBinomial = SCIENTIFIC NAME
5Scientific Names You Need to Know Homo sapiensCanis lupusFelis domesticusPan pan
6Taxonomic hierarchyNames organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific
7All organisms classified in a hierarchy Kingdom (broadest)PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies (most specific)
8Notes assignment:Look up the classification for humans for all seven hierarchies and write them below.
9What is a species anyway? Biological species conceptA group of actually or potentially breeding natural groups that are reproductively isolated from other groups.Ernst Mayr, 1924BSC’s problemsHybridsSterile offspring of two different speciesAsexual organisms
10How many are out there? Scientists currently estimate that There are 10 million species worldwideOver 5 million live in the tropicsMost unnamed species are small or microscopic
11Why is taxonomy useful? Helps prevent confusion among scientists Helps to show how organisms are relatedCan be used to reconstruct phylogenies – evolutionary histories – of an organism or group
12A note on cladogramsGraph showing when different groups diverged from a common ancestral linePoints where they diverge are often noted with a feature that was different between ancestral group and a “new” feature in the group that split off.