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Chapter 18.  The science of naming and classifying living things.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18.  The science of naming and classifying living things."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18

2  The science of naming and classifying living things.

3  Pre-1700 common names were used to identify organisms. ◦ Long ◦ Variable

4  Grouped all organisms into two groups: ◦ Plants and animals ◦ Not everyone fit

5  1700’s – Carolus Linnaeus ◦ Devised a two-name system of naming  Genus, species

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10  Linnaeus created 7 groups from the largest Kingdom to the smallest Species.

11 Section 18-1 Flowchart Linnaeus’s System of Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

12 Grizzly bearBlack bearGiant panda Red fox Abert squirr el Coral snake Sea star KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos Section 18-1 Figure 18-5 Classification of Ursus arctos

13  1700’s – plant & animal  Late 1800’s – protist, plant, animal  1950’s – monera, protist, fungi, plant, animal  1990’s – eubacteria, archaebacteria, protist, fungi, plant, animal  Today - More divisions: ◦ 3 Domains are divided into 6 kingdoms

14 DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph sponges, worms, fishes, mammals Eukarya Classification of Living Things Section 18-3 Figure Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and Domains

15  Based on evolutionary relationships, not just visual similarities. ◦ Cladograms (phylogenic trees)

16 CLADOGRAM AppendagesConical Shells Crab Barnacle Limpet Crab Barnacle Limpet CrustaceansGastropod Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva Section 18-2 Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES

17 CLADOGRAM AppendagesConical Shells Crab Barnacle Limpet Crab Barnacle Limpet CrustaceansGastropod Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva Section 18-2 Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram


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