Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dir Instr:History & Use of Biological Classification.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Dir Instr:History & Use of Biological Classification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dir Instr:History & Use of Biological Classification

2 CLASSIFICATION & TAXONOMY Classification: grouping based on similarities Taxonomy: Branch of Biology The science of classifying/grouping and naming of organisms

3 Aristotles Classification Scheme Greek philosopher who developed first classification system Divided all organisms into 2 GROUPS: 1.Non motile (plants) 2.Motile (animals) Plants grouped by: – size (small, medium, large) Animals grouped by: – where they lived (air, water, land)

4 Binomial Nomenclature A system for naming organisms by structure created by Carl Linnaeus: –Although Linneaus didnt realize it, by classifying organisms by structure he was also classifying them by evolutionary relationship Written in Latin Includes the organisms : Genus: CAPITALIZED (noun) – means beginning Species: lowercase (adj.) Example: Homo (man) sapien (wise/thinking)

5 Scientific & Common Names Scientific Name: genus and species name –Iguana iguana –Felis domesticus Common name: Organism is commonly called Not used in the scientific community –Green Iguana –Domestic Cat

6 The New Evolutionary Classification Categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent Not just physical similarities This new method is called: Evolutionary Classification Scientists classify organisms based on their Evolutionary Beginnings

7 Cladograms A diagram that shows evolutionary relationships Cladograms show derived characteristics Help scientists understand how one lineage branched from another in the course of evolution

8 Traditional Classification vs. Cladogram TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION CLADOGRAM Appendages Conical Shells CrustaceansGastropoda Crab Barnacle Limpet Physical Similarities Evolutionary Decent: Class Molten exoskeleton Segmentation Free-swimming larvae

9 Kingdoms Broadest of all taxa Grouped into 3 domains: 1.Bacteria : Eubacteria 2. Archea: Archeabacteria 3. Eukarya: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

10 Characteristics of the 6 Kingdoms 1. Kingdom Eubacteria: a. all microscopic prokaryotes b. almost all are unicellular c. non-motile d. commonly called bacteria 2. Kingdom Archaebacteria: a. prokaryotes b. live in extreme environment

11 3. Kingdom Protista: a. eukaryotes b. uni and multicellular c. live in moist environments d. most are simple, microscopic & mobile *Examples: paramecium, amoeba, euglena & algae

12 4. Kingdom Fungi : a. Eukaryotes b. Uni and Multicellular c. Consumers that do not move d. Decompose dead organisms &/or waste products *Examples: mushrooms, molds, & mildew

13 5. Kingdom Plantae: a. stationary, multicelluar eukaryotes b. Photosynthetic c. Autotrophs *(make own food) *Examples: plants

14 6. Kingdom Animalia: a. Multicellular b. Consumers that eat & digest other organisms (heterotrophs) c. May be herbivores, carnivores & omnivores *Examples: Animals

15 Complete Classification of Humans 1.Kingdom: (Animalia) 2.Phylum: (Chordata) Dorsal nerve cord- cartilage Vertebrae 3.Subphylum: (Vertebrata) 4.Class: (Mammalia) 5. Order: (Primates) 6. Family: (Hominid) 7. Genus: (Homo) 8. Species: (sapien)

Download ppt "Dir Instr:History & Use of Biological Classification."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google