Presentation on theme: "Ancient China I. Achievements of the Ancient Chinese"— Presentation transcript:
1Ancient China I. Achievements of the Ancient Chinese A. Great Wall of China-largest masonaryconstruction in the world.1. Defensive wall stretching 1400 miles,protecting China from enemies to thenorth.2. Helped to keep the vast land of Chinaunified. Great Wall to the north; desertto the west; Himalayas Mts. to the southwest;ocean to the east.
2Ancient Chinese Achievements B. Paper J. UmbrellaC. Gunpowder K. Paper moneyD. The wheelbarrow L. Playing cardsE. The crossbow M. Use of petroleum and nat.F. Masts and Sailing gas as fuelG. Kites N. AcupunctureH. Parachutes O. The hoe-for farmingI. Matches P. Martial artsQ. compassR. Silk Road-used to trade silks, rugs, bronze and otheraspects of Chinese culture to the rest of the civilizedworld west of China.
3The Great Dynasties of Ancient China The ShangA. First great dynasty in China was the Shangdynasty (1800 B.C. to 1123 B.C.)1. Began along the Huang He river valley2. During Shang rule-Chinese writingdevelopeda. scribes wrote on narrow strips ofbamboo or wood and had to writevertically rather than horizontally-Chinesetoday write and read vertically left to right.
4The Shang 3. Early Chinese civilizations were polytheists. a. Rulers claimed to have a mandate from heaven.b. During the Shang dynasty human sacrifice was carriedout to show devotion and respect to the gods. TheShang also believed they received wisdom for the godsin return for offering sacrifices.c. Thousands of ancient skeletal remains have been foundpiled on top of each other near the palaces where theShang dynasty ruled- show signs of being sacrificed.
5The Shang 4. Archaeologists believe the Shang practiced slavery. 5. Made exquisite bronze jugs, urns, and bowls6. Shang me of wisdom used oracle bones and oracle shells tolearn about future battles, leaders, and possible disasters.a. Tortoise shells and bones would be heated over a hotfire until cracked. The cracks would then beinterpreted.7. Developed silk- a process using silkworm cocoons frommulberry trees. Divulging the secrets of silk making led toexecution.
6The Shang8. Most people living under Shang rule were very poor peasants.a. They farmed wheat, millet, and rice.b. Peasants were heavily taxed and always owned rent totheir landlord- it was not uncommon that a fatherwould sell their children into slavery to pay the rent.9. Because of poor leadership, the Shang dynasty collapsed in1123 B.C.
7The Zhou Dynasty1. The Zhou dynasty ruled China from 1027 B.C. to 256 B.C.2. The Zhou dynasty ruled China during a time period called theEra of Warring States.a. Much of their rule was marked by constant fightingbetween the different states of the land of China.3. Responding to the chaos and disorder of the time,important thinkers established philosophies by which Chinesepeople could live a better life in a more harmonious China.
8Philosopher Confucius Confucianism Believed that social order, harmony and good government could be restored in China if society was organized around 5 basic relationships.Ruler-SubjectFather-sonHusband-wifeOlder brother-younger brotherFriend-friend
9Lao-Tzu Taoism (Daoism) The Philosophers Believed only the natural order was important.The natural order involves relations among all living things.He said that a universal force called the Dao guides all things.Dao means “the way”Daoists pursed scientific studies.
10The Philosophers Han-Fei Tzu & Li Si Legalism Believed that a highly efficient government was the key to restoring oder in society.Government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmonyBelieved that a ruler should provide rich rewards for people who carried out their duties well.The disobedient should be harshly punishedGovernment should control ideas as well as actions
11Qin Dynasty 1. Ruled land of China 221 B.C. to 206 B.C. 2. Forced China to unify-it is estimated that they executed 2/3of their opponents.a. Suppressed the power of warlords and centralized gov’tb. Qin dynasty built Great Wall of China to help keep outinvading enemies from the north.1. Built by 200,000 convicts and 100,000 soldiers2. Thousands of laborers died and were buried asfill in the Great Wall.3. Laborers were forced to work and would have toleave their families for several years.
12Qin Dynasty 4. It is believed many workers were put to death during construction so they would not reveal thesecrets of construction.c. Unified written languaged. Built 5000 miles of roadse. Passports were needed to travelf. Standardized the currencyg. Buried alive 460 of the most distinguished scholars viewed as athreat to dynasty1. organized mass book burnings-many of the writings aboutConfucius were destroyeda. Any writing supporting the state warlords were destroyed
13Qin Dynasty H. Built a great military a. Many peasants joined the military under the Qindynasty because it offered them the opportunity toimprove their station in life.b. Some historians believe that the amount of heads cutoff in battle directly increased a soldiers’ chances ofmoving up the military ranks.1. One story has it that in one battle 450,000 of theenemy was captured and all 450,000 of thesecaptives were beheaded.
14“First Emperor”-Shi Huangdi I. The leader of the Qin dynasty was Shi HuangdiA. He was called “First Emperor”B. Took all the land from the warlords-became firstemperor of China (China may be named after thisdynasty)1. All brass spears, arrows, and chariots of warlordsturned inC. Shi Huangdi died in 210 B.C., after ruling for 11 years.
15Terra Cotta Warriors1. As soon as he became emperor, he already had 700,000convicts working on a mausoleum.a. Automatic crossbows were set up for robbersb. Those who had worked on the mausoleum, Shi’sconcubines, and his many prized material possessionswere sealed in the tomb.c life size clay statues (each with a unique face) ofhis army were buried in battle formation, along withclay horses and chariots.1. Legend has it that if a soldier was asked to posewith the statue and refused they would sufferdeath.
16Han Dynasty1. Ruled China for over 400 years- (140 B.C. to around 220 A.D.)A. Han leaders used diplomacy as their guiding principlefor ruling the states of China-relied less on warfare.B. Trade occurred with Europe and the Middle Eastby way of the Silk RoadC. Time of great wealth and population explosion inChinaD. The arts and scholarship flourished.
17Han Dynasty 1. They adopted Confucianism-which strongly influences China today2. The religion Buddhism spread from India into Chinaduring this time3. Daoism also thrived during the Han dynasty.