2 Today’s Discussion Questions (6-4) When did the Han Dynasty rule? Who was the founder?How was the Han government based on the ideas of Confucius?List the social classes of the Han Dynasty.Why did the family take on such importance during the Han Dynasty?What inventions/advances emerged during the Han Dynasty?
3 1. 2200 BC: Xia Dynasty founded BC: Farming developed along the Chang Jiang ValleysBC: Zhou Dynasty beginsBC: Civil War spreads during the Warring States PeriodBC: Shi Huangdi unifies China, begins the Qin Dynasty6. 600s BC: First section of the Great Wall was builtBC: Shi Huangdi becomes emperor, a high official rules in his name.8. c206 BC: Qin Dynasty collapsesBC: Han Dynasty begins10. AD 220: Han Dynasty falls
4 The Han Dynasty (202 BC-AD 220) Founded by Liu BangA peasant who claimed to be the recipient of the “Mandate of Heaven”The first common person to become emperorEarned loyalty/trust of the people and was well liked by both soldiers and peasantsHis rule was different from the strict legalism of the QinLowered taxes for farmersMade punishments less severeGave large blocks of land to his supportersRelied on educated officials to help him rule
5 New Government 140 BC: Emperor Wudi (Woo-dee) took the throne Wanted to create a strong central governmentTook land from the lordsRaised taxesPlaced the supply grain under the control of the government
6 Confucianism in the Han Dynasty Made Confucianism China’s official government philosophyOfficials were expected to practice ConfucianismBegan a university to teach Confucian ideasExams were given on Confucian teachingsIf a person passed, he could get a good position in government. (Civil Service Exam)Exams were only open to people recommended for government serviceAs a result, wealthy families continued to control government.
7 Family Life & Social Classes Class structure became more rigid during the Han DynastyBased on the Confucian system, people were divided into 4 classes.
8 Emperor, Court, Government Officials PeasantsArtisansMerchants
9 Merchants were in the lowest class because they did not produce anything. They only bought and sold what others made.Believed government officials should not handle or be concerned with moneyMilitary was not an official class in the Confucian system.It did however offer men the chance to rise in social status because the military was considered part of the government.
10 Lives of the Rich & Poor Classes only divided people into social rank. Ranks did not indicate wealth or power.For example, merchants were ranked lowest but were usually the wealthiest.The wealthy lived lavishly in expensive homes while the poor lived in simple homes and wore plain clothing.Most people in the Han Dynasty were not wealthy.Out of the nearly 60 million, 90% of them were peasants.
12 Revival of the FamilySince Confucianism was the official philosophy, teachings about family were honored.They believed in a concept called “Filial Piety”Respect EldersDisobeying parents was a crimeFather was head of the family & had absolute power
13 Revival of the FamilyHan officials believed that if a family was strong and obeyed the father, then it would obey the emperor.Children were encouraged to serve their parents.They were also expected to honor dead parents with ceremonies and offerings.This was called Ancestor Worship.This is still practiced in parts of China today.
14 Boys vs Girls Chinese parents valued boys more highly than girls. This was because the sons carried the family line and took care of their parents when they were old.On the other hand, daughters became part of their husband’s family.Some women gained power within their families by influencing their son’s family.An older widow could become the head of the family.
15 Inventions & Advances Inventions/Innovations Advances Figure Painting PaperSundialSeismographAcupunctureWaterwheelRudderDrill BitsAdvancesFigure PaintingLiterature:Fu style poetryShi style poetryHistory: Sima Qian wrote the complete histories of the early dynasties
20 Changes in ChinaThe Han Emperors after Han Wudi were weak and foolish.Central government lost respect and powerDishonest officials and greedy aristocrats led to unrest among farmersWars, rebellion, and plots against the emperor led to the end of the Han Dynasty.People turned to Buddhism to cope with the fear and unrest.As a result, Buddhism spread throughout China.