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A Balanced Approach to 21 st Century Assessment Lisa Youell Superintendents Center for 21 st Century Schools West Virginia Department of Education.

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Presentation on theme: "A Balanced Approach to 21 st Century Assessment Lisa Youell Superintendents Center for 21 st Century Schools West Virginia Department of Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Balanced Approach to 21 st Century Assessment Lisa Youell Superintendents Center for 21 st Century Schools West Virginia Department of Education

2 Is it on the test? Dont worry, its Not On The TestNot On The Test!

3 Once a Year… Yields indicators of ones health Concerns about the final numbers Doctor makes recommendations Physical Exam

4 Doctors Recommendations? Focus on the Exam Once a Year For 3 months before the next exam do the following: – Exercise – Get more sleep – Eat oats everyday Focus on Healthy Practices Daily Practice good habits on a daily basis – Drink water every day – Eat more fiber – Eat fruits and vegetables – Eat less fat – Exercise/walk – Avoid tobacco

5 Once a Year… Schools Annual Checkup Yields indicators of schools progress Concerns about the final numbers Principal makes recommendations

6 Schools Annual Checkup Focus on the Test Once a Year For 3 months before the test do the following: – Look at the data – Determine weaknesses – Practice test items with standardized format Focus on Daily Practices Become assessment literate Use day to day classroom assessment practices that involve students directly in self-assessment, goal setting, and communicating about their own learning Collect a continuous stream of evidence of student learning Use assessment information formatively to plan further instruction

7 We are living in the old system while we are trying to build a new system.

8 In a Perfect System… Annual Accountability Testing (State Summative Test) Periodic Benchmark Assessments Continuous Classroom Assessment For Learning Institutional/Policy Users (School, District and State Leadership) Program Level Users (Teacher Teams and Leaders) Classroom Level Users (Students, Teachers and Parents)

9 Research on Assessment & Student Achievement British researchers Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam completed a comprehensive review of 250 international studies exploring the connection between formative assessment practices and student achievement (1998)

10 Research on Assessment & Student Achievement Does improved formative assessment cause better learning? Do formative assessment practices need improving? Is there evidence about how to improve formative assessment?

11 Needed Improvements to Realize Gains Increased commitment to high-quality classroom assessments Increased descriptive feedback; reduced evaluative feedback Increased student involvement in the assessment process Black and Wiliam, 1989

12 Black & Wiliam Research on Effects of Classroom Assessment for Learning:.4 to.7 Gain.7 Standard Deviation Score Gain = 25 Percentile Points on ITBS 70 SAT Score Points 4 ACT Score Points Largest Gain for Low Achievers

13 A Productive Multi-Level Assessment System Is needed to be sure that all instructional decisions are informed and well made Is needed to meet the informational needs of all users at all levels – State – District – School – Classroom (teachers and students)

14 A Balanced Assessment System Assessment of Learning Summative Assessment – An event after learning Benchmark Assessment (Common or Interim Assessments) – An event after learning Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment – A process during learning Classroom Assessment For Learning – A process during learning

15 Critical Questions What is the primary aim of assessment? Who will use the information? What decisions will they make?

16 Common Language? Summative Assessment Formative Assessment Assessment FOR Learning Assessment OF Learning Benchmark Assessments Classroom Assessment For Learning

17 Assessment OF Learning Users Uses What How When Turn to your neighbor and discuss the key differences in benchmark and summative assessment.

18 Assessment of Learning Periodic (3 or 4 times during the year Annual

19 Primary Users BenchmarkSummative

20 Typical Uses Benchmark Summative

21 Assess What? BenchmarkSummative

22 Assess How? Benchmark Summative

23 Assess When? BenchmarkSummative

24 Assessment for Learning Users Uses What How When Turn to your neighbor and discuss the key differences in formative and classroom assessment for learning.

25 Assessment for Learning

26 Needed Improvements to Realize Gains Increased commitment to high-quality classroom assessments Increased descriptive feedback; reduced evaluative feedback Increased student involvement in the assessment process Black and Wiliam, 1989

27 Primary Users Classroom Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment Student as Decision Maker

28 Typical Uses Descriptive Feedback Classroom Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment

29 Typical Uses Student Involvement Classroom Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment

30 Assess What? Classroom Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment Learning Targets

31 A learning target is an achievement expectation we hold for students. Its a statement of what we want the student to learn. Is this a target? Math Decimals Page 152 in the book Going on a decimal hunt Read decimals and put them in order

32 Objective/Benchmark: First Grade Reading /English Language Arts Produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Overall Target Type: Knowledge Reasoning Performance Skill Product Learning Targets What are the knowledge, reasoning, performance skill or product targets underpinning the standard/objective? Knowledge TargetsReasoning TargetsPerformance Skill Targets Product Targets Write sentences with varied beginnings Holds a pencil correctly Print letters correctly Space words Use lines & margins Stretch out sounds in words to create a temporary spelling of a word Distinguish the uses or meanings of a variety of words (word choice) Know what a sentence is Understand concept of word choice Summative Assessment Formative/Classroom Assessment for Learning

33 Standard/Objective: Drive with skill. Type: Knowledge Reasoning Performance Skill Product Learning Targets What are the knowledge, reasoning, skill or product targets underpinning the standard/objective? Knowledge TargetsReasoning TargetsPerformance Skill Targets Product Targets Know the law Understand informal rules of the road Understand what different parts of the car do Read signs and understand what they mean Understand what creating a danger means Understand what creating a hazard means Other? Analyze road conditions, vehicle performance, and other drivers actions Compare/contrast this information with knowledge and past experience Synthesize information and evaluate options to make decisions on what to do next Evaluate Am I safe? and synthesize information to take action if needed. Other? Driving actions such as: steering, shifting, parallel parking, looking, signaling, backing up, braking, accelerating, etc. Fluidity/automaticity in performance driving actions. Other? None Since the ultimate type of target is a performance skill, there are no embedded product targets Summative Assessment Formative/Classroom Assessment for Learning

34 Clear Learning Targets We need clear targets to… Know if the assessment adequately covers what we taught Correctly identify what students know and dont know Have students self-assess or set goals for future study that are likely to help them learn more Keep track of student learning target by target Complete a standards-based report card

35 Assess How? Classroom Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment

36 Assess When? Classroom Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment

37 The only difference in Formative Assessment (as described above) and Classroom Assessment for Learning is the student involvement component. Classroom Assessment for Learning

38 What Are the Benefits of Assessment FOR Learning ? Making student thinking and understanding more visible Using results primarily to shape and adjust what happens next in classrooms, rather than to provide a grade or mark Using assessment to encourage, not discourage, student effort Engaging students in thinking about themselves as learners

39 Review of Research Literature …achievement gains from using such assessment-for-learning strategies were among the largest ever reported for educational interventions. -Black and Wiliam (1998) More frequent testing does not necessarily mean greater gains. The strategies Black and Wiliam refer to involve students in the entire process.

40 What a Difference a Word Makes Video Presentation by Rick Stiggins

41 A Balanced Approach Teachers involve their students in classroom assessment, record-keeping, and communication during learning. But, when its time for students to be accountable for what they have learned, the teacher takes the lead in conducting assessments OF learning. -Richard J. Stiggins

42 Assessment OF and FOR Learning Sort Activity: Assessment for Learning Assessment of Learning Not Sure

43 Needed Improvements to Realize Gains Increased commitment to high-quality classroom assessments Increased descriptive feedback; reduced evaluative feedback Increased student involvement in the assessment process Black and Wiliam, 1989

44 Descriptive or Evaluative Feedback? You made some simple mistakes multiplying 3- digit numbers.

45 The giving of marks and the grading function are overemphasized, while the giving of useful advice and learning function are underemphasized. --Black & Wiliam,1998 backonlearningdylanwiliam.asp backonlearningdylanwiliam.asp

46 Feedback Take a minute to read over the research on effective feedback (handout). Discuss with those at your table. Summarize important ideas from the research and draw conclusions about effective feedback.

47 Effective feedback points out successes and gives specific information about how to improve the performance or product. --Black & Wiliam, 1998: Black et al, 2002; Bloom, 1989; Brown, 1994

48 Effective learners operate best when they have insight into their own strengths and weaknesses and access to their own repertoires of strategies for learning. --Brown, 1994

49 Feedback is effective when it offers information about progress relative to the intended learning goal and about what action to take to reach the intended learning goal. --Hattie & Timperley, 2005

50 Comments directed to the quality of the workwhat was done well and what needs improvingincrease student interest in the task and level of achievement. --Butler, 1988

51 Frequently feedback is used to push students to do more or do better, without being specific enough to help students know what to do. This type of feedback is generally ineffective. --Hattie & Timperley, 2005

52 EMPHASIZES LEARNING GOALS Research shows that feedback that EMPHASIZES LEARNING GOALS leads to greater learning gains than feedback that emphasizes self-esteem. --Ames, 1992; Butler, 1998; Dweck, 1986

53 self quality of the task Feedback that cues the individual to direct attention to self (praise, effort, etc.) rather than to the quality of the task appear to have a negative effect on learning. Many studies speak to effective teachers praising less than average. -- (Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Kluger & DiNisi, 1996)

54 Intensive correction, where the teacher marks every error in every paper a student writes, is completely useless. Marking all errors is no more advantageous in terms of student growth than marking none of them. --Hillocks, 1986

55 Grading every piece of work is misdirected. A numerical grade does not show students how to improve their work. Further, students ignore comments when grades are given. --Butler, 1998

56 When teachers substituted comments for grades, students engaged more productively in improving their work. --Black, et al, 2002

57 When receiving feedback emphasizing self- esteem, high-performing students often attribute their performance to effort and low- performing students attribute their performance to lack of ability. --Butler & Newman, 1995; Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Kluger & deNisi, 1996

58 Descriptive Feedback Specific comments about the quality or characteristics of the work itself ---has a positive impact on motivation and learning. – Identify strengths (what was done well) – Explain what student needs to improve – Help student generate strategies for improvement

59 Descriptive Feedback Are you hearing descriptive feedback when you conduct WalkThroughs?

60 Needed Improvements to Realize Gains Increased commitment to high-quality classroom assessments Increased descriptive feedback; reduced evaluative feedback Increased student involvement in the assessment process Black and Wiliam, 1989

61 Student Involvement Once students become involved, assessment for learning looks more like teaching than it does testing. It takes advantage of the power of assessment as an instructional tool that promotes learning rather than an event designed solely for the purpose of evaluating and assigning grades (Davies 2000).

62 Adapted from Quality Learning Australia Pty Ltd Follower Master All Knowing Provider Passive Recipient Coach Learning Participant Facilitator and Mentor Active Self- Starting Learner

63 Assessment for Learning Practices Engage and Enable Students

64 Framework for High Performing 21 st Century Schools

65

66 Multiple Opportunities to Succeed If everything counts (is graded) theres never time to practice – get better. Rick Stiggins

67 Is a change in assessment philosophy and practice required in order to implement Assessment FOR Learning? Will a change need to occur in administrators, teachers, parents and students?

68 Teaming

69

70 Lisa Youell Superintendents Center for 21 st Century Schools


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