6Professional Learning Communities Not a new initiative, a way of going moving from School goals to Classroom goals with continuous improvementA framework for results-focused discussionsOpportunities for grade level and like- content teams to focus on improvementPLC’s use data and the PDSA process to focus on the success of each student
7What do we want students to know? Pre Planning: Identification of Need1. Develop/Review Student Learning Expectations2. Examine alignment of learning expectations with assessments3. Review assessment data4. Identify areas of need based on assessmentIdentify areas ofstrength and weakness?What do we want students to know?Plan:1. Describe the current process for addressing the identified area of need (flow chart)2. Review data to determine baseline performance in the specific area identified(Run Chart/Pareto Diagram)3. Identify potential root causes contributing to the identified area of need(Cause & Effect Diagram, 5 Why’s, Relations Diagram)4. Study research-based best practice/improvement theory addressing areas of needHOW do we knowif they have learned it?What do they know?What have they learned?Action ResearchOverviewforProfessionalLearning CommunitiesDO1. Plan for implementation of improvement theory (Force Field Analysis, Action Plan)2. Implement research-based best practices improvement theory based on root causes according to the Action Plan3. Monitor the implementation of research-based best practice/improvement theory to insure integrity and fidelity 4. Assess student learningAct:1. Standardize the implementation of research-based best practice (improvement theory) that improved student learning (revise the flow chart to reflect changes made to the system)2. If improvement theory was unsuccessful continue the PDSA cycle (try another improvement theory based on the next identified root causes)What evidence do we haveof the learning?Most effective/best practiceteaching and learning strategies?The questions are essentially the same as PDSA is applied to answer the key questions at the classroom level. The emphasis is on student learning expectations, evidence of learning and responses to struggling learners.Study:1. Examine student assessment results (compare to baseline)2. Assess the impact of research-based best practice/improvement theory on student achievementHave they learned it?What do we do if they don’t?How do we respond if they don’t?
8PLC Critical Questions What do we want students to know and be able to do?Standards/Benchmarks (Learning Outcomes)Classroom SMART goalsHow will we know if they can do it?Formative assessmentsMultiple data setsHow will we respond when they can’t?Differentiated InstructionSystems of intervention (supplemental to intensive)
9Student Crucial Questions What do I need to know?Where am I now?How do I get there?What happens if I fail?
10CRCSD Areas of Focus 2006-2008 & ongoing CRCSD Student Learning ExpectationsIowa Professional Development ModelFormative AssessmentLearning CommunitiesIowa Professional Development Model
11Refinement of Practice Learning TargetDistrict Focus for the YearInstructionAssessmentRefinement of Practice
12What’s the purpose for assessment? To begin thinking about assessment quality, think about these questions: What is the purpose of assessment? How do we use the results? Take a few minutes to write down as many uses as you can think of.Handout page 1Additional Presentation Activity #1 “Balance in the Classroom” fits here.
13Two Purposes for Assessment SUMMATIVEAssessments OF LearningHow much have students learned as of a particular point in time?FORMATIVEAssessments FOR LearningHow can we use assessment information to help students learn more?We can divide the purposes of assessment into two categories: assessment of learning and assessment for learning. Summative assessment, or assessment of learning, measures the level of achievement at a point in time. Standardized tests and common assessments fall into this category. Any work that is evaluated that counts toward the report card grade we can consider an assessment of learning. So, if you think about all the assessments given over a trimester or quarter and how many of them are figured into the grade, you’ll discover that a lot of them, if not most of them, are assessments of learning.Formative assessment, or assessment for learning, on the other hand, is not an accountability tool, but a teaching tool. We can conduct assessments to make decisions about instruction before the learning process or during the learning process. For example, we conduct pretests to help us decide where to begin with certain groups of students, and we give students quizzes to help them decide what their strengths are and what they need to focus on.Handout page 2Additional Presentation Activity #2 “Differences Between Assessment for and of Learning” fits here.
14Purpose: Assess to meet whose needs? ClassroomInstructional SupportPolicyStudentsTeachersParentsTeacher TeamsCurriculum CoordinatorsPrincipalsSuperintendentSchool BoardTaxpayersLegislatorsA wide variety of decision-makers rely on assessment information. Their information needs are different. For example, what decisions do students make on the basis of classroom assessment information? What decisions do teams of teachers make? (You can either use these questions rhetorically—no answer required—or you can ask participants to respond to each question.)All make decisions that impact the quality of education students receive.Handout page 5
15Balanced Assessment: Meeting the Needs of All Stakeholders Administer annual accountability testingDevelop interim, short-cycle or benchmarkEnsure ongoing, accurate classroom assessments for and of learningConsider the student as the most influential user of assessment informationAt ETS ATI we know that it takes more than just the results of a once-a-year accountability test to improve learning. It takes more than short-cycle or interim assessment, and in fact, takes more than just high-quality classroom assessment. Therefore, we advocate for a balanced approach to assessment, one that meets the needs of policy-makers, instructional decision-makers, and students.Our program shows people how to build systems of assessment, so there is synergy among all levels of assessment –they work together to improve achievement.Handout page 5
16Assessment for Learning Rick StigginsFree DVD part two beginning (approx 29:19) to 38:14
17Overview Summative Formative Reason To Inform Focus Assessment OF LearningAssessment FOR LearningImprove LearningCheck StatusOthers about studentsStudents about themselvesEnabling TargetsStandards
18Assessment OF Learning Assessment FOR Learning ExamplePlace in TimeUseAssessment OF LearningAssessment FOR LearningAssessments that diagnose needs or help students see themselves improveHigh Stakes External AssessmentsAn event after learningA process during learningSummativeFormative
19Formative assessment can and should be done Key IDEA:Formative assessment can and should be doneBY STUDENTS,as well as by teachers. The key to improvement is how students and teachers use assessment information.
20“Teachers use formative assessment to inform instructional methods… at the very least, teachers should check for understanding every 15 minutes.”-Douglas FisherChecking for Understanding
21Balanced Assessment ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING SUMMATIVEAssessments that provide evidence of student achievement for the purpose of making a judgment about student competence or program effectiveness.FORMATIVEFormal and informal processes teachers & students us to gather evidence for the purpose of improving learningASSESSMENT FOR LEARNINGUse assessments to help students assess & adjust their own learning.ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNINGUse formal & informal classroom assessments to inform teacher’s decisions.FORMATIVE USES OF SUMMATIVE DATAUse summative results to inform what comes next for individuals or groups of students.
22Keys to Classroom Assessment Key 1: Clear PurposeKey 2: Clear targetsKey 3: Sound Assessment DesignKey 4: Effective CommunicationKey 5: Student InvolvementThe first key to quality is Clear Purpose. Who is going to use the results and how will they be used? These decisions determine what information is needed, and in what form.Handout pageAdditional Presentation Activity #3 “Role Play: Uses and Users” fits here.
23Seven Strategies of Assessment FOR Learning Clear & Understandable Vision of TargetExamples/models of strong & weak workRegular Descriptive feedbackTeach Students to Self-Assess & Set Goals.Focus on One AspectTeach Focused RevisionEngage students in Self-Reflection
27John Hattie—reviewed 7,827 studies on learning and instruction. Conclusion… “The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops’ of feedback.”
28Like most things in education, classroom assessment enhances student achievement under certain conditions only.Feedback from classroom assessments should provide students with a clear picture oftheir progress on learning goals andhow they might improveFeedback from classroom assessment should encourage students to improve.Classroom assessment should be formative in nature.Formative classroom assessments should be quite frequent.
29Why Assessment for Learning Works When students are required to think about their own learning, articulate what they understand, and what they still need to learn, achievement improves.--Black and Wiliam, 1998; Sternberg, 1996; Young, 2000What is it about student involvement that works? Why does research support assessment for learning in the classroom? (Before showing this slide, you can pose these as rhetorical questions or you can ask audience members to respond.)There are hundreds of ways to involve students in assessment that increase achievement. The critical factor here is that students identify what they understand and what they still need to work on.Handout page 11
30Formative assessment can and should be done Key IDEA:Formative assessment can and should be doneBY STUDENTS,as well as by teachers. The key to improvement is how students and teachers use assessment information.