4PURPOSE Two Uses of Assessment SUMMATIVEAssessments OF LearningHow much have students learned as of a particular point in time?FORMATIVEAssessments FOR LearningHow can we use assessment information to help students learn more?
6FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTAll those activities undertaken by teachers and by their students [that] provide information to be used as FEEDBACK to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged Black & Wiliam, 1998
11Why Assessment for Learning Works When students are required to think about their own learning, articulate what they understand, and what they still need to learn, achievement improves.--Black and Wiliam, 1998; Sternberg, 1996; Young, 2000
12Balanced Assessment: Meeting the Needs of All Stakeholders Annual accountability testingInterim, short-cycle or benchmarkOngoing, accurate classroom assessment for learning
13Balanced Assessment Formative Summative Assessment for learning Formal and informal processes teachers and students use to gather evidence to directly improve the learning of students assessedSummativeProvides evidence achievement to certify student competence or program effectivenessAssessment for learningUse assessments to help students assess and adjust their own learningAssessment for learningUse classroom assessments to inform teacher’s decisionsFormative uses of summative dataUse of summative evidence to inform what comes next for individuals or groups of students
15Key 1: Clear Assessment Purpose Always begin by asking:What decisions?Who’s making them?What information will be helpful to them?
16Key 2: Clear Learning Targets Know what kinds of targets are represented in curriculumKnow which targets each assessment measures
17Kinds of Targets Master content knowledge Use knowledge to reason Know it outrightKnow where to find it or how to do itUse knowledge to reasonDemonstrate performance skillsCreate quality products
18Key 3: Sound Assessment Design Target-method matchSelect a proper methodItem qualityBuild the assessment with quality ingredientsSampleGather enough evidenceMinimize biasAvoid sources of bias and distortion
19Key 4: Effective Communication To the student: descriptive feedbackAbout the student, to others: gradesInvolving the student, tracking learning: portfoliosInvolving the student, to others: conferencesAbout the student: standardized tests
20Key 5: Student Involvement Clear Purpose: Consider the student as the most important user of assessment informationClear Targets: Communicate the learning targets in advance in language students can understandSound Design: Set assessments up so that students can use the information to self-assess and set goalsEffective Communication: Provide students with descriptive feedback; involve students in tracking and communicating about their learning
21The Long-Standing Problem Educators have rarely been given the opportunity to learn how to gather dependable evidence
22Three Essential Questions for Students What do I need to know?Where am I?How will I get there?
23Seven Strategies of Assessment FOR Learning Clear & Understandable Vision of TargetExamples/models of strong & weak workRegular Descriptive feedbackTeach Students to Self-Assess & Set Goals.Focus on One AspectTeach Focused RevisionEngage students in Self-Reflection
24A, B Partners “7 Strategies” Read-Share-Inquire Individually read sectionA: shares key point or connectionB: “And what makes that important to you?Alternate, repeat until finished15 minutes
25First Turn/Last Turn 25 Minutes Group Sharing In turn – share one of your items, ----but do not comment on it - The First Turn.Group members comment in round-robin order about the item. (No cross talk)The initial person who named the item then shares his or her thinking about the item and gets – The Last Turn.Repeat the pattern around the table.25 Minutes
26Three Essential Questions for Students What do I need to know?Where am I?How will I get there?
27Expected Benefits and Proven Results Better instruction focused on standardsProfound achievement gains for all students, with the largest gains for lowest achieversMore self-managed learning by students
28What decisions do students make on the basis of classroom assessment information?
29From High Stakes Assessment to In-Process Measures Mistaken Belief: “It’s the adults who use assessment results to make the most important instructional decisions…”Mistaken Belief: “The most important decisions are made annually based on annual high-stakes tests”18:05-24:27
31“Assessment Through the Student’s Eyes” The Assessment ExperienceScenario 1 & Scenario 2
32Formative assessment can and should be done NEW IDEA:Formative assessment can and should be doneBY STUDENTS,as well as by teachers. The key to improvement is how students and teachers use assessment information.
33Data What data should be collected? How should data be used? Who should be involved?What makes it relevant?
34Using Data How good is good enough? Does this meet the standard? What are students doing well?What are the weak areas?What do we do about it?
35Data Should Be: Multi-sourced Relevant Timely Consistent over time Collected by usersDisaggregatedDriving effective decision-makingSupportive of mission: success for allFoundation of team efforts to find solutions
36Using data to guide decision-making and continuous improvement How has the Cedar Rapids district implemented this principle?How has your school?You in your role?What could you do?