Presentation on theme: "When Students Can’t Read…"— Presentation transcript:
1 When Students Can’t Read… 26 Steps to assure students are receiving the best literacy instruction.By: Jennifer MurdockWhen Students Can’t Read…What Teacher’s Can DoSpring 2007
2 Why Is Literacy So Important??? More than three thousand students drop out of high school every school day.One of the most common reasons students drop out is simply do to the fact that they don’t have the literacy skills to keep up with high school curriculum.There are eight million struggling readers in grades 4-12 in schools across the nation.
3 Why is Literacy so Important Cont. Almost 70% of students entering ninth grade are considered to be reading below grade level.Almost 60% of students entering twelfth grade are considered to be reading below grade level.Part of what makes it so difficult to meet the needs of struggling readers and writers in middle and high school is that these students experience a wide range of challenges that require an equally wide range of interventions.
4 15 Key Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Programs Instructional ImprovementsDirect, explicit Comprehension instructionEffective instructional principles embedded in contentMotivation and self-directed learningText-based collaborative learningStrategic tutoringDiverse textsIntensive writingA technology componentOngoing formative assessment of studentsInfrastructure ImprovementsExtended time for literacyProfessional developmentOngoing summative assessment of students and programsTeacher teamsLeadershipA comprehensive and coordinated literacy program
5 Instructional Elements Direct, explicit comprehension instructionComprehension strategiesComprehension monitoring and metacognition instructionTeacher modelingScaffold instructionApprenticeship modelsEffective Instructional Principles Embedded in ContentFirst form applies to language arts teachersThe teacher does not simply teach a technique as an abstract skill, but teaches using content-area materials.Second form applies to subject area teachersThe teacher uses instructional principles embedded in the content to reinforce instruction in the skills and strategies that are particularly effective in their subject area
6 Instructional Elements Continued Motivation and Self-Directed LearningAddresses the need to promote greater student engagement and motivationText-Based Collaborative LearningWhen students work in small groups, they should discuss the topic as well as interact with each other around a text.Diverse TextsProviding students with diverse texts that present a wide range of topices at a variety of learning levels.
7 Instructional Elements Continued Intensive WritingEffective adolescent literacy programs must include and element that helps students improve their writing skills.Technology ComponentTechnology plays and increasingly important in our society, and is both a facilitator and medium of literacyOngoing Formative AssessmentThe best instructional improvements are informed by ongoing assessment of student strengths and needs.
8 Infrastructural Elements Extended Time for LiteracyIn order to improve literacy, more instructional time must be added.Professional DevelopmentLong term professional development is likely to promote lasting, positive changes in teacher knowledge and practice
9 Infrastructural Elements Continued Ongoing Summative Assessment of Students and ProgramsThese assessments are designed speciffically for implementation with continuous progress-monitoring systems.Teacher TeamsEnsures that the school structure supports coordinated instruction and planning in an interdisciplinary teacher team.
10 Infrastructural Elements Continued LeadershipIt is critical that the principal assumes the role of an instructional leader, who demonstrates commitment and participates in the school community.A Comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy programThe vision for an effective literacy program recognizes that creating fluent and proficient readers and writers is a very complex task and requires teachers to coordinate their instruction to reinforce important strategies and concepts.Proceeding information was taken from:Reading Next: A Vision For Action And ResearchIn Middle And High School Literacy
11 11 Key Elements of Effective Adolescent Writing Writing StrategiesSummarizationCollaborative WritingSpecific Product goalsWord ProcessingSentence- CombiningPrewritingInquiry ActivitiesProcess Writing ApproachStudy of ModelsWriting for Content Learning
12 Key Elements of Writing Instruction Writing StrategiesTeaching adolescents strategies for planning, revising, and editing their compositions has shown a dramatic effect on the quality of students’ writing.SummarizationWriting instruction often involves explicitly and systematically teaching students how to summarize texts.
13 Key Elements of Writing Instruction Continued Collaborative WritingInvolves developing instructional arrangements whereby adolescents work together to plan, draft, revise, and edit their compositions. It shows a strong impact on improving the quality of student writing.Specific Product GoalsSetting product goals involves assigning students specific, reachable goals for their writing. As well as identifying the purpose of the assignment and the characteristics of the final product.
14 Key Elements of Writing Instruction continued Word ProcessingThe use of word-processing equipment can be particularly helpful for low-achieving writers.Sentence CombiningInvolves teaching students to construct more complex and sophisticated sentences through exercises in which two or more basic sentences are combined into a single sentence.
15 Key Elements of Writing Instruction Continued Pre-WritingEngages students in activities designed to help them generate or organize ideas for their composition.Engaging Students in such activities before they write a first draft improves the quality of their writing.
16 Key Elements of Writing Instruction Continued Process Writing ApproachInvolves a number of interwoven activities, including creating extended opportunities for writingemphasizing writing for real audiencesencouraging cycles of planning, translating, and reviewingStressing personal responsibility and ownership of writing projectsFacilitating high levels of student interactionsDeveloping supportive writing environmentsEncouraging self-reflection and evaluationOffering personalized individual assistance
17 Key Elements of Writing Instruction Continued Inquiry ActivitiesEngaging students in activities that help them develop ideas and content for a particular writing task by analyzing immediate, concrete data.Study of ModelsProvides adolescents with good models for each type of writing that is the focus of instruction.
18 Key Elements of Writing Instruction Continued Writing for content Area LearningWriting has been shown to be an effective tool for enhancing students’ learning of content materialsProceeding information was taken from:Writing Next: Effective Strategies To ImproveWriting of Adolescents In Middle andHigh School.
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