Presentation on theme: "Assessing Students in the 21st Century"— Presentation transcript:
1Assessing Students in the 21st Century Presented byJan Stanley, State Title I DirectorKaren Davies, Title I Coordinator
2Framework for the 21st Century Skills P21 FrameworkP21 FrameworkP21 FrameworkFrameworkThe Partnership for 21st Century Skills has developed a unified, collective vision for 21st century learning that can be used to strengthen American education. An overview of this framework, with links to more information, is included below:The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has developed a unified, collective vision for 21st century learning that can be used to strengthen American education. An overview of this framework, with links to more information, is included below:The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has developed a unified, collective vision for 21st century learning that can be used to strengthen American education. An overview of this framework, with links to more information, is included below:The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has developed a unified, collective vision for 21st century learning that can be used to strengthen American education. An overview of this framework, with links to more information, is included below:The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has developed a unified, collective vision for 21st century learning that can be used to strengthen American education. An overview of this framework, with links to more information, is included below:Framework for the 21st Century SkillsAs we view the framework for 21st century skill, note that assessment is the base of all components.
3Common Language? Formative Assessments Summative Assessment Assessment FOR LearningBenchmark AssessmentsAssessment OF LearningFormative Classroom Assessments FOR Learning
4What is a balanced assessment system What is a balanced assessment system? Assessment OF Learning Assessment FOR LearningHow does Assessment OF Learning differ from Assessment FOR Learning?All assessments can generally be classified into one of two categories:Assessments of learningAssessments for learningWe should be accessing to inform instructional decisions and encourage students to accept responsibility for their learning.As special education and Title I teachers move toward providing academic interventions and accept increased accountability for monitoring the progress of students achieving below mastery, an understanding of assessment is imperative.Define the word OF-attributed to; apart from; proceeding as a product of something; characterized byDefine the word FOR–in the interest of; with the purpose of; suitable to; with regard to; corresponding toWhat a difference a word makes…. Assessment OF learning – Assessment FOR learningRick Stiggins published an article entitled this in the winter 2006 edition of the National Staff Development Council publication. The WVDE staff also had the privilege of working with him for 2 days in January. Provide teams a copy of the article
5A Balanced Assessment System Summative AssessmentsBenchmark AssessmentsFormative Assessments OF LearningFormative Assessments/Classroom Assessments FOR LearningAll three levels are important. One level cannot replace another.In discussing this, refer to chart developed by the Superintendent’s Center for 21st Century Schools.Refer to handout
6A Balanced Assessment System Ensures that all instructional decisions are based on dataMeets the informational needs of following groups:StateDistrictSchoolClassroom (teachers and students)ParentsWhy utilize a balanced assessment?Data driven instruction
7State Summative and Local Benchmark Assessments Who are the primary users?What are the typical uses?What is being assessed?What methods are being used?When do we assess?State Summative: Primary users include State, District and SchoolLocal Benchmark: Primary users include District, School, and Classroom teacherTypical uses: State Summative -To:-Verify individual and group mastery of standards & objectives-Measure achievement status at a point in time for purposes of reporting & accountability-Make decisions about district & school programs and resourcesBenchmark-To:-Verify individual and group mastery of specific objectives-Identify students who require additional support-Provide instructional feedback to teachers-Identify objectives not yet mastered (gaps) early enough to enable teachers to make adjustments in the instructional programAssess what? Summative – State standards and objectives Benchmark – Specific objectives as determined by the local curriculum map or pacing guide At the benchmark level you are assessing fewer objectives, but you are assessing more often.Assessment methods? Typically the same methods are used for the state accountability test and local benchmark assessments – selected response (multiple choice) and constructed response (short answer) Local benchmark assessments are often generated from purchased test item banks that are aligned with state standards.Assess when? Benchmark assessments are usually administered 3 or 4 times a year. You increase the frequency of summative assessments.
8Assessment FOR Learning Assessment OF Learning Assessment UserAssessment FOR LearningAssessment OF LearningState Department of Education CommunityWhich districts/schools are making adequate yearly progress?Are the students acquiring skills to prepare them for the 21st century?SuperintendentDistrict AdministratorsAre our chosen strategies to improve achievement producing results?How shall we allocate district resources to achieve success?PrincipalHow shall we allocate our resources to achieve success?Is classroom instruction producing results?Those outside the classroom make assessment OF learning decisions.To summarize: One may think of assessments OF learning as summative assessments and assessments For learning as formative assessments.
9Assessment OF Learning Administered after learning has occurredUtilized to communicate statements of student learning status to those outside the classroomUsed to gather evidence for a student's report card grade – final exams and projectsAdministered to demonstrate accountabilityTo summarize:Types of assessments in this category:National assessments such as NAEPState assessments-WESTESTLocal standardized testsCollege admissions testsMost often this is group data used to inform administrators and teachers the percentage of students meeting standards.SchoolDistrictCommunityThese tests are usually limited to a selected response or multiple choice.
10A Process During Learning Formative AssessmentA Process During LearningWho are the primary users?What are the typical uses?What is being assessed?What methods are being used?When do we assess?Primary users: Classroom teachersTypical uses: To:-Support learning-Reflect progress toward mastery of objectives-Help teachers diagnose and respond to student needs-Adjust instruction based on results-Understand which building blocks (learning targets) require additional attention-Provide descriptive feedback to studentsAssess what? This is a major difference in benchmark and formative assessment: Small Explicit Learning Targets: Instructional objective(s) that are broken down into component parts that enable students to build toward mastery -Knowledge required-Patterns of reasoning-Performance skills-Product development Key: Focus on one aspect of quality at a timeAssess how? This is also a major difference in benchmark and formative assessment -Requires the use of many methods to provide a continuous stream of accurate evidence of students’ mastery of knowledge, reasoning, performance skills and product development. Learning Target – Method Match: Accuracy in formative classroom assessment requires matching the kinds of Learning Targets to the appropriate assessment method:-Selected Response-Constructed Response-Extended Written Response-Performance/Product (demonstrated and observed) -Personal Communication (finding out what students have learned through interacting with them)Assess when? Continuously
11Assessment FOR Learning Assessment OF Learning Assessment UserAssessment FOR LearningAssessment OF LearningStudentAm I improving?Where do I need help?How am I achieving in relation to my peers?TeacherWhat intervention does this student need?Is instruction paced at the correct rate?What are this student’s strengths?What grade has this student earned?Is this student achieving on grade level?ParentsWhat can I do at home to support learning?Is my child learning new things?How does my child compare to others in the school/district/state?How does this school compare to others in the district/state?Notice from the prior chart that for teachers, students and parents, assessments OF learning are not enough.Assessments OF learning do not provide the day to day information needed in the classroom to impact instruction.However, assessment FOR learning has a broader meaning – it involves utilizing progress monitoring to provide descriptive rather than evaluative feedback to students and it used the results to plan instruction and interventions for specific students
12Classroom Assessment FOR Learning What is the difference between formative assessments and formative classroom assessments for learning?The only difference is the student involvement component.Formative classroom assessment FOR learning allows students to know what they are trying to achieve, where they are now and how to close the gap between the two.
13Formative /Classroom Assessments For Learning Occur during learningEncourage student motivation and learningThese assessments:Are not high-stakesAre not used for accountabilityAre not used for report card grades“If everything is for a grade, there’s never time to practice – get better.” -Rick Stiggins
14What is the Student Involvement Component? Classroom Assessment For LearningAcknowledges the critical importance of students and teachers working as a teamEnsures instructional decisions are made by students and teachersProvides continuous descriptive rather than evaluative feedback1. Students collaborate with teachers in creating and using assessments like those they will be held accountable for later.2. Assessments become far more than one-time events attached to the end of teaching. They become part of the learning process by keeping students posted on their progress and confident enough to continue to strive.Students collaborate with teachers in creating and using assessments like those they will be held accountable for later.3. Provides continuous descriptive (rather than evaluative) feedback is provided strategically in amounts that students can address effectively, in amounts that do not overwhelm them.Feedback: Students need to know what they did well and how they can improve. Scores and grades are not descriptive. Students become consumers of assessment information, using evidence of their own progress to understand what comes next for them and to set goals.Students become partners in the accumulation of growth portfolios that reveal the changes in their own achievement as it is happening.
15FeedbackResearch indicates feedback that focuses on leaning targets leads to greater academic gains than feedback that emphasizes self esteem.
16Questions students should ask teachers Learning TargetsQuestions students should ask teachersIf I have not mastered an objective (summative/benchmark), how will I improve if I don’t know which specific learning targets are keeping me from mastery?What knowledge do I need to demonstrate the intended learning?What patterns of reasoning do I need to master?What skills are required, if any?What product development capabilities must I acquire?Summative and benchmark assessments do not provide sufficient detail to inform teachers on how to help individual students. Formative/Classroom Assessments provide evidence of student progress in mastering the foundations or components (learning targets) that underpin and lead up to the objectives.These learning targets are achieved by assisting students in unpacking the content standards and objectives.
17Activity Descriptive or Evaluative Feedback? Using the activity sheet on page 76 of assessment training materials, have participants determine if the example of feedback is descriptive or evaluative.Complete activity and discuss answers.
18Descriptive VS Evaluative Feedback Describes features of work or qualityRelates to learning targets or standards of qualityIdentifies strengthsProvides specific information on how to improveEvaluativeAssigns a label to achievementExpresses a judgmentExpresses disapprovalIdentifies weaknessesAssigned to all work, even if it is for practiceSee additional notes on page 77Discuss with participants the 3 minute conference strategy on page 84 and the other 2 strategies on page 85.When providing feedback about what to do differently, teachers need to determineWhat is the key error?What is the probable cause for the error?How can I guide the student to avoid the error in the future?
19When consistently carried out as a matter of routine within and across classrooms, evaluative feedback has been linked to profound gains in student achievement, especially for low achievers.Benjamin Bloom, "The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-on-One Tutoring," Educational Leadership, May 1984Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam, "Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment," Phi Delta Kappan, October 1998key words – consistently and pervasively
21What is the expectation for a change in responsibilities for Title I and special education teachers?
22Teacher Accountability Improving Results for Students in High Need PopulationsA Strategic PlanRecommendation #2Refer to booklet
23Establish the Expectation Recommendation #2Establish a management system, within a tiered instruction and intervention model, that empowers special education and Title I teachers to assume leadership and responsibility in documenting progress and coordinating instructional interventions for individual identified students to ensure improved results for each student in reading and mathematics on an annual basis.Source – Page 5 of the Executive Summary of the Strategic Plan for Improving Results for Students in High Need PopulationsWhat is the expectation?Title I and special education provide millions of dollars of funding for districts and schools in WV. Yet, an achievement gap exists for students with disabilities and also students from poverty.Thus, the strategic plan developed by the High Needs Task Force identified the above as a priority recommendation of the plan.
24Change in the Focus of Services Special Education TeachersAccommodations and Modifications for LearningIntervention StrategiesTitle I TeachersRemediation of SkillsIntervention StrategiesTraditionally, special education teachers have recommended accommodations and/or modifications for students on their case load to general classroom teachers who had these students in class.Accommodation is the method of delivering instruction or assessment of the curriculum standards and objectives (CSOs); it does not involve changing the curriculum (CSOs). For example, many students that are identified as special education actually only have variations of difficulties in accessing the curriculum through print material. These students have the capacity to understand the CSOs through some other medium than print, and thus an accommodation was suggested.Modification is how we change the curriculum standards and objectives (CSOs) that are delivered. When appropriate, a small percentage (USDE says 2% or fewer) of students might need to have the curriculum standards and objectives (CSOs) modified in some way.Traditionally, Title I teachers provided remedial reading services generally through a “pull out” model.Remediation is the method of delivering instruction to help students overcome deficiencies. Many times this was delivered through materials that were several grade levels below the student’s grade placement and the instructional materials utilized had little or no connection to those being utilized in the classroom.Intervention is a method of providing intense, explicit instruction characterized by differentiation based on the results of progress monitoring. It is generally delivered through a tiered instructional approach that includes increasingly more intense levels of student support and increased instructional time. Successful implementation requires collaborative practice between general education, special education, Title I teachers and other professional staff.
25Teacher Responsibilities for Student Accountability Participate in completing a comprehensive analysis of assessment dataGenerate a list of students by grade level who are not achieving masteryGraph or chart longitudinal assessment data for “at risk students”Participate in instructional intervention teams and the development of student intervention plansProvide academic interventions and conduct progress monitoringAs we review the teacher responsibilities for student accountability, please note that it is not the intend to have special education and Title I teachers assume responsibility for all students who are not achieving mastery. Rather these teachers are being encouraged to accept a leadership role within the instructional intervention team. All teachers in the school should be part of reviewing and analyzing assessment results.2. Pre-K programs are required to complete an on line assessment – creativecurriculum.netTeachers enter information from progress checkpoints throughout the yearThe assessment also suggests developmentally appropriate activities based on the WV Pre-K curriculumThe assessment also generates child profiles and class summariesTitle I and special education teachers have received specialized training in both assessing student progress, diagnosing needs and designing and providing interventions.Provide Tier I instruction through an in class modelParticipate as a member of the instructional intervention team to identify appropriate interventions for students identified as achieving below masteryProvide Tier 2 and Tier 3 intervention through a “pull out” model or extended day programReview and document the results formative assessments utilized within the tiered instruction to ascertain student progressCommunicate student progress to the general education teacher on a regular basisReconvene an IEP team meeting if a student’s lack of progress indicates a change in service is needed
26What are the teacher responsibilities for measuring student progress?
27Assessment – Now What?Summative and benchmark assessment results have been reviewed and targeted (non proficient) students have been identifiedWhat now?From the middle of August until the end of September the teachers are reviewing data to determine which students are not meeting proficiency either with summative and/or benchmark assessment.Instructional Intervention Team
28Instructional Intervention Team What is the purpose of the team?Who are the members?What are the team responsibilities?Principal/designee identifies a small flexible instructional intervention team of members with knowledge of the student’s achievement.Who are the members:Team membership may include 2 or more of these suggested professionals.Principal/designeeTitle I teacherSpecial education teacherTechnology Integration Specialist (TIS)Speech and language specialistGeneral education teacherOne or more of the following individuals dependent upon student needs – counselor, nurse, social worker, school psychologistOtherResponsibilities of the teamThe intervention team identifies specific intervention strategies that address the following items:Description of specific instructional interventions based on results of diagnostic testingDuration of the interventionSchedule and setting for the interventionPerson(s) responsible for delivery of the student interventionMeasurable outcomes – goals and/or objectivesIdentify how instruction is differentiatedIdentify how technology is integratedSchedule of progress monitoring (minimum of every 2 weeks)Description of the measurement instrument and recording proceduresProcedures for adjustments in interventions based on the results of the progress monitoring
29Purpose of the TeamThe team is responsible for gathering student information concerning current performance, skill deficiencies, developing an intervention plan and using collected progress monitoring data to make adjustments to intervention plan.THIS IS NOT A STUDENT ASSISTANCE TEAM.It’s not a formal team that is identified in September and meets monthly but rather a team of individuals who work closely with the student. If you are in a RF or RTI school, you’re already doing this.WHO ARE THE TEAM MEMBERS?The group should remain small and flexible and fill a rapid responder function. Again, the members should be individuals who know the student and can monitor the progress and make instructional adjustments.Team membership may include 2 or more of these suggested professionals.Principal/designeeTitle I teacherSpecial education teacherTechnology Integration Specialist (TIS)Speech and language specialistGeneral education teacherOne or more of the following individuals dependent upon student needs – counselor, nurse, social worker, school psychologistOther
30Intervention Team Membership Team membership may include 2 or more of these suggested professionals:Principal/designeeTitle I teacherSpecial education teacherTechnology Integration Specialist (TIS)Speech and language specialistGeneral education teacherOne or more of the following individuals dependent upon student needs – counselor, nurse, social worker, school psychologistOther as determined by district and/or school administratorsWHO ARE THE TEAM MEMBERS?The group should remain small and flexible and fill a rapid responder function. Again, the members should be individuals who know the student and can monitor the progress and make instructional adjustments.
31Team Member Responsibilities Define the deficiency using baseline dataDevelop an individual instructional intervention plan of actionImplement the intervention planEvaluate plotted data to adjust interventionsThere are 4 basic responsibilitiesDefine deficiencies – compare the deficiencies to IEP goalsDevelop a plan – this plan may involve the reassignment of Title I and special education staff based on identified student needs. Adjust IEPs for students with disabilities if needed.Implement the plan andEvaluate and track progress data and adjust interventionsThere should be an expectation that data should be tracked to view the longitudinal progress.
32Baseline Data Data Sources Summative Individual Right Response Record Benchmark testsFormative assessmentsIdentification of specific student academic weaknessThe first responsibility is analyzing the data and identifying academic weaknesses.The data you might be viewing:Summative Individual Right Response RecordBenchmark resultsFormative assessments given within the classroomWHAT EVER DATA YOU CAN USE TO IDENTIFY THE ACADEMIC WEAKNESSES
33Develop an Intervention Plan Deficient Skills Have Been IdentifiedDevelop an Intervention PlanImplement PlanInterventionsEvaluateandAdjustThis slide will help you to visualize where we are going with this processThis is the cycle utilized for progress monitoring:Identify the deficienciesDevelop the planEvaluate and adjust the interventions.
34The Intervention Plan should include the following information: Description of specific interventionDuration of the interventionSchedule and setting of the interventionPersons responsible for implementing the interventionIdentify measurable outcomes–goals/objectivesIdentification of measurement instrument and documenting techniquesProgress monitoring scheduleThis slide describes what should be included in the plan.Again, if you are in a RF or RTI school you are already using intervention plans and this may be the plan you want to modify and continue using for the additional grades within your school. Your system or school has the flexibility to design the intervention plan to meets your specific needs.
35Plan has been Developed Develop an Intervention PlanImplement PlanInterventionsEvaluateandAdjustOnce the plan has been developed, it is now time to implement the plan. (NEXT SLIDE)
36Implement the Intervention Plan Intervention strategies are delivered through Tier 2 or Tier 3 instruction.MONITOR PROGRESSThe implementation of the intervention strategies are delivered through tier two or tier three instruction.The teacher or teachers with responsibility should maintain records of each completed session.Teachers should monitor the progress of the student’s response to the interventions.
37Progress Monitoring What is it? Why do we do it? What is the purpose? Why do it?What is the purpose?
38What is Progress Monitoring? Progress monitoring involves continuous data collection on skills that are important for the student’s success.What is it?Continuous data collection on the skills that were identified as weaknesses during the analysis.
39Why Use Progress Monitoring? Why do it?To collect frequent measures of the progress of the studentTo establish goalsTo make instructional changes
40Student Success ! What is the Purpose? The purpose for progress monitoringBottom Line:To ensure the students are acquiring the skills necessary for academic success.
41Plan has been Implemented Develop an Intervention PlanImplement PlanEvaluateandAdjustInterventionsIt’s time to evaluate the collected data to evaluate and adjust interventions.
42Evaluate and Adjust Interventions The team reconvenes to assess student progress and make adjustments to the instructional intervention plan.DATA COLLECTEDIt’s at this time the team reconvenes to review the progress monitoring data and make necessary adjustments to the original plan.The team should answer the questions:Based to the collected data:Is what we are doing making a difference?Should we continue with what we are doing?ORWhat changes do we need to make to the intervention strategies?
43Instructional Intervention Plan has been AdjustedOnce again, we begin the cycle of:Adjusting the intervention planImplementing the planMonitoring the progressEvaluating and adjusting instruction
44Concluding ThoughtsResearch has shown that consistently applying principles of assessment FOR learning has yielded unprecedented gains in student achievement.
45Concluding ThoughtsStudents must be taught the skills they need to be in control of their own academic success:self assessment;goal setting;reflection on personal work;recording the results of progress; andunderstanding and sharing the results of their progress.
46Suggested Resources Publisher: Educational Testing Service - 2006 Assessment FOR Learning – An Action Guide for School LeadersS. Chappuis, R. Stiggins, J. Arter, and J. ChappuisClassroom Assessment for Student Learning –Doing It Right-Using It WellR. Stiggins, J. Arter, J. Chappuis, and S. ChappuisPublisher: Educational Testing Service