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Early Industry and Inventions

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Presentation on theme: "Early Industry and Inventions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Industry and Inventions

2 Inventors and Their Inventions
Eli Whitney Inventors and Famous Inventions Samuel Morse Samuel Slater's Mill Robert Fulton James Hargreave's "Spinning Jenny" John Deere

3 Industrial Revolution Slide 1
The first Industrial Revolution began in England in the late 18th century. An industrial revolution is when hand tools are replaced by factory machines, work moves from the home to the factory, and farming is revolutionized through the use of mechanized tools. An example is the making of clothes.

4 Industrial Revolution Slide 2
British inventors began to make textiles (clothing) with machines. A British textile worker, Samuel Slater, set up a textile factory in Rhode Island in 1790. This was the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the U.S. and Samuel Slater became known as the father of the Industrial Revolution in America!

5 Spinning Jenny and Power Loom
Before the Industrial Revolution, clothes were made at home. Afterwards, clothes were made by machines in factories. Often these machines were run by children.

6 Factory System Slide 3 The factory system had many workers under one roof working at machines. Many people left farms and moved to the city to work in factories. They wanted the money that factories paid. This change was not always for the better.

7 Factories Come to New England Slide 4
New England was a good place to have a factory. Factories needed water power, and New England had many fast-moving rivers. Also, soil in New England was not suitable for large scale farming so entrepreneurs looked for new ways to make money


9 The Lowell Mills Hire Women Slide 5
In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell built a factory in eastern Massachusetts, near the Concord River. The factory spun cotton into yarn and wove the cotton into cloth. Something was different about this factory, they hired women. The “Lowell girls” lived in company-owned boardinghouses. The girls worked over 12 hours a day in deafening noise.

10 The Lowell Girls Slide 6 Young women came to Lowell in spite of the noise. They came for the good wages: between two and four dollars a week. The girls usually only worked for a few years until they married.

11 Less Dependency on Europe
Slide 7 * As a result, the U.S. no longer had to rely on buying finished textile products from Europe! View the inside of a 19th century textile mill. (Lowell, MA ) 1845 Lowell factory pamphlet

12 Interchangeable Parts Slide 8
The first use of interchangeable parts was created by inventor Eli Whitney. Before this time, guns were made one at a time. Each gun was different. If a part broke, a new part had to be created. Whitney created muskets with exactly the same parts, so any part would fit any gun. The use of interchangeable parts speeded up production, made repairs easier, and allowed the use of lower-paid, less skilled workers.

13 Factory Workers Slide 9 Women were paid half as much as men.
Working hours were long, and wages were low. Ex.) hour work days Earnings: men - $5 per week women - $2 per week children - $1 per week Cities developed as farmers and immigrants took available factory jobs.

14 Canals Man made waterways were constructed all over the Northeast to get goods to west and east. One canal that was built between the years was the Erie Canal.

15 New York and Canals Slide 10
The Erie Canal ("Clinton's Big Ditch") opened on October 26, 1825, 363 miles long, forty feet wide, four feet deep, 18 aqueducts and 83 locks, shortened travel time form the east coast to the gateway to the west (the Great Lakes) by half and reduced shipping costs by 90%. only trade route west of the Appalachians, prompted the first great westward migration of American settlers, turned Rochester into the nation's first boom town and made New York City the busiest port in the United States.

16 Steamboat Slide 11 Robert Fulton designed a steam engine for a steamboat that could move against the current of a river or against the wind. His ship the Clermont sailed from New York City to Albany and back in 62 hours. A record at that time. The steamboat created more opportunities for trade and transportation on rivers.

17 The Telegraph Slide 12 The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse.
This machine sent long and short pulses of electricity along a wire. With the telegraph, it took only seconds to communicate with another city. The invention of the steamboat and telegraph brought the people of the nation closer to each other.

18 John Deere and the plow Slide 13
In 1836, John Deere invented a lightweight plow with a steel cutting edge. Deere’s plow made preparing the ground for planting much less work.

19 Cyrus McCormick and the Reaper Slide 14
Cyrus McCormick invented a mechanical reaper, cut grain from the fields. This allowed farmers to plant much more seed because they could harvest it easier.

20 New Technologies help nation grow Slide 15
With new farm equipment, Midwestern farmers grew food to feed Northeastern factory workers. Midwestern farmers became a market for Northeastern manufactured goods. The growth of the textile factories increased the demand for Southern cotton. This led to the expansion of slavery.

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