Presentation on theme: "New Ideas and Inventions"— Presentation transcript:
1New Ideas and Inventions Chapter 11 Lesson 4Pages
2Brainstorm What are some GREAT inventions you can think of. How have they made an impact on society?Brainstorm
3Explain how canals, steamboats, and railroads improved transportation and shipping Describe how new inventions led to the Industrial RevolutionObjectives
41700’s What were forms of transportation used? How did this affect the lives of people?1700’s
5TRANSPORTATION Early 1800’s Appalachians – difficult to transport goods to the east.Congress votes to build a National Road1818 – Connects Maryland to West VirginiaSlow & Expensive
6BOATS – Cheaper & Faster than by Land Problem: Rivers had changes in elevation along with rapids and waterfalls making boat travel impossible in some locationsBOATS – Cheaper & Faster than by Land
7CANALS – a human-made waterway that connects bodies of waters. 1817 – NY Governor, DeWitt Clinton, begins work on the Erie Canal (Lake Erie to Hudson River)Solution. . .
8The Erie Canal 8 years to build 363 miles long 83 locks Connected: Great Lakes to the Atlantic OceanCut shipping time & costExample:Goods from Buffalo to NYC cut from 20 days to 8 daysCost: $100 to $10
9LOCK SYSTEM Holds a section of water by two gates. One gate is opened, the water raises or lowers the boat to the next level of water.This is how the boats traveled through different elevation levels.
10Pictures of Miami – Erie Canal Canal boats are pulled by mules.Here the boat is inside the lock and will be lowering down due to elevation change.Pictures of Miami – Erie Canal
11The canal boat continues to lower due to the water level changing by opening a lock gate.
13How did the Erie Canal change trade in the nation? It cut travel time and cost to transport goods.
14A human-made waterway that connects bodies of water. What is a canal?A human-made waterway that connects bodies of water.
15STEAM ENGINE Steamboats Railroads 1807 Robert Fulton Used the Steam engine to power his boat ClermontSteamboats quickly become primary mode of travel on large rivers.1830Peter CooperBuilt 1st American locomotive – Tom ThumbSteam is used to power the locomotive over iron rails.Grew rapidly – cheaper than steamboat travel1850 – over 9,000 miles of trackSTEAM ENGINE
16Steam EnginesCreates energy by heating liquid water into steam, which is trapped, creating pressure. Releasing the trapped steam causes pistons to move up and down. These are connected to rods, which are connected to wheels that turn as the pistons move.
17INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION New inventions & travel changed thinkingMachines are used to do work only done by hand until nowGoods made quickly and cheaperThis change in manufacturing became known as The Industrial Revolution.INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
18Britain Industrial Revolution started in Britain Machines that spun thread into clothPlaced in factories – Called MILLSWater powered the machinesWanted it kept secret.Machines & the workers were never allowed to leave Britain.Britain
19A spy within. . . Samuel Slater, mill worker Memorized every detail of the machine and millSneaked aboard a ship to U.S.1793 – Slater along with Moses Brown built 1st American textile mill in Pawtucket, RIA spy within. . .
21Change in U.S.Slater & Brown’s Mill marks the start of large scale manufacturing in the United States.People stop working at home and start working in factories.Most workers are women and children.
221814 – Francis Cabot Lowell Mill in Waltham, Mass. Did all jobs to make raw cotton into finished cloth.Workers lived in nearby houses owned by the mill.
23Factory effects . . . Most factories in the North Men, Women, and Children workedLowell mill paid only $12 a monthBut better than poor farm workEuropean immigrants arrived and settled near factoriesSouth remained agriculturalFactory effects . . .
24COTTON GIN1793Eli WhitneyRemoves seeds from cotton (until now done by hand)Effect: more enslaved workers needed
25Interchangeable Parts Eli WhitneyParts that are made exactly alikeUsed interchangeable parts for gunsUntil now, made one at a time by a skilled workerEffect: Now could be mass produced.
26Mechanical Reaper1832Cyrus McCormickUsed to harvest grain
27Steel Plow1837John DeereSteel plow allowed farmers to cut through heavy soil in Midwest.
28Telegraph 1837 Samuel F.B. Morse Sent messages along a wire using a dot and dash code systemThis becomes known as Morse Code
29Cause: Because of the Industrial Revolution Effect: Many people moved from farms to cities to work. The U.S. was becoming an industrial power.
30How did railroads improve life for people in the U.S.? They made it easier to ship goods and for people to travel.
31What invention led to the increase of slaves on plantations? Cotton Gin
32Give an example of how a new invention of the Industrial Revolution changed the lives of Americans? Cotton Gin – made it possible to remove the seeds from cotton faster. This results in increased crop production and the need for slaves.Interchangeable Parts – made it easier to mass produce weapons, which reduced their cost for initial production and to replace parts as needed.
33With your neighbor, discuss Another effect of the Industrial Revolution.Go back to your invention list.What is the effect of modernDay inventions on everydayLife.