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Early 19th century Industrialization in America: The Market Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Early 19th century Industrialization in America: The Market Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early 19th century Industrialization in America: The Market Revolution

2 EOC Standard B.2.a. Describe and evaluate the impacts of the First Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century (e.g., the Lowell system, immigration, changing technologies, transportation innovations)

3 ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What were the results of early 19th century
industrialization in America?

4 Industrial Revolution
The first Industrial Revolution began in England in the late 18th century. An industrial revolution is when hand tools are replaced by factory machines, and farming is replaced by large-scale manufacturing. An example is the making of clothes.

5 Spinning Jenny and Power Loom
Before the Industrial Revolution, clothes were made at home. Afterwards, clothes were made by machines in factories. Often these machines were run by children.

6 Transportation Revolution
First Turnpike Lancaster, PA Cumberland (National Road), 1811 By 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road connected most major cities.

7 Erie Canal, 1820s Begun in 1817; completed in 1825

8 Principal Canals in 1840

9 Steamboat(s) Robert Fulton designed a steam engine for a steamboat that could move against the current of a river or against the wind. The steamboat created more opportunities for trade and transportation on rivers. 1807: The Clermont

10 The “Iron Horse” Wins! (1830)
1830  13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RR By 1850  9000 mi. of RR track [1860  31,000 mi.]

11 The Railroad Revolution, 1850s
Immigrant labor built the No. RRs. Slave labor built the So. RRs.

12 What impact does this transportation revolution have on the US?
Inland Freight Rates

13 New Inventions: "Yankee Ingenuity"

14 Resourcefulness & Experimentation
Americans were willing to try anything. They were first copiers, then innovators. 1800  41 patents were approved. 1860  4,357 “ “ “

15 The cotton gin Inventory Eli Whitney also invented the cotton gin.
The gin took the seeds out of the cotton, which was much faster than doing it by hand. The cotton gin also greatly expanded the need for slaves. It was also actually invented by a slave.

16 Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle

17 Interchangeable Parts
The first use of interchangeable parts was created by inventor Eli Whitney. Before this time, guns were made one at a time. Each gun was different. If a part broke, a new part had to be created. Whitney created muskets with exactly the same parts, so any part would fit any gun. The use of interchangeable parts speeded up production, made repairs easier, and allowed the use of lower-paid, less skilled workers.

18 Farming Revolution In 1836, John Deere invented a lightweight plow with a steel cutting edge. Deere’s plow made preparing the ground for planting much less work.

19 Cyrus McCormick and the reaper
Cyrus McCormick invented a mechanical reaper, cut grain from the fields. This allowed farmers to plant much more seed because they could harvest it easier.

20 The Threshing Machine The threshing machine separated the kernels of wheat from the husks, which was a far faster way of getting wheat than picking it by hand. The threshing machine increased the growing of wheat.

21 New Technologies help nation grow
With new farm equipment, Midwestern farmers grew food to feed Northeastern factory workers. Midwestern farmers became a market for Northeastern manufactured goods. The growth of the textile factories increased the demand for Southern cotton. This led to the expansion of slavery.

22 Communications Revolution
The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse. This machine sent sent long and short pulses of electricity along a wire. With the telegraph, it took only seconds to communicate with another city. The invention of the steamboat and telegraph brought the people of the nation closer to each other. Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858

23 The “American Dream” They all regarded material advance as the natural fruit of American republicanism & proof of the country’s virtue and promise. A German visitor in the 1840s, Friedrich List, observed: Anything new is quickly introduced here, including all of the latest inventions. There is no clinging to old ways. The moment an American hears the word “invention,” he pricks up his ears.

24 Factory Revolution The factory system had many workers under one roof working at machines. Many people left farms and moved to the city to work in factories. They wanted the money that factories paid. This change was not always for the better.

25 Factories Come to New England
New England was a good place to have a factory. Factories needed water power, and New England had many fast-moving rivers.


27 Samuel Slater (“Father of the Factory System”)

28 Early Textile Mill Loom Floor

29 Early Textile Loom

30 New England Dominance in Textiles

31 New England Textile Centers: 1830s

32 Lowell Mill

33 The Lowell Mills Hire Women
In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell built a factory in eastern Massachusetts, near the Concord River. The factory spun cotton into yarn and wove the cotton into cloth. Something was different about this factory, they hired women. The “Lowell girls” lived in company-owned boardinghouses. The girls worked over 12 hours a day in deafening noise.

34 The Lowell Girls Young women came to Lowell in spite of the noise.
They came for the good wages: between two and four dollars a week. The girls usually only worked for a few years until they married.

35 Lowell Boarding Houses What was boardinghouse life like?

36 Lowell Mills Time Table

37 I’m a Factory Girl Filled with Wishes
I'm a factory girl Everyday filled with fear From breathing in the poison air Wishing for windows! I'm a factory girl Tired from the 13 hours of wok each day And we have such low pay Wishing for shorten work times! I'm a factory girl Never having enough time to eat Nor to rest my feet Wishing for more free time! I'm a factory girl Sick of all this harsh conditions Making me want to sign the petition! So do what I ask for because I am a factory girl And I'm hereby speaking for all the rest!

38 In the 1840s huge numbers of Irish immigrants came to the US
In the 1840s huge numbers of Irish immigrants came to the US. This cheap labor supply was the end of the Lowell system.

39 American View of the Irish Immigrant

40 The Early Union Movement
Workingman’s Party (1829) * Founded by Robert Dale Owen and others in New York City. Early unions were usually local, social, and weak. Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842). Worker political parties were ineffective until the post-Civil War period.

41 What's Happening in America by the 1850s?

42 Regional Specialization
EAST  Industrial SOUTH  Cotton & Slavery WEST  The Nation’s “Breadbasket”

43 American Population Centers in 1820

44 American Population Centers in 1860

45 National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860
Why now?

46 “The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner”
Know-Nothing Party: “The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner”

47 Changing Occupation Distributions: 1820 - 1860

48 The results of early 19c industrialization in America? ECONOMIC?
POLITICAL? The results of early 19c industrialization in America? SOCIAL? FUTURE PROBLEMS?

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