2Chapter 16 Primate Evolution Section 1: PrimatesSection 2: Hominoids to HomininsSection 3: Human Ancestry
3Characteristics of Primates Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesCharacteristics of PrimatesManual dexterityFive digits on each hand and footFlat nails and sensitive areas on the ends of their digitsThe first digits are opposable.
4Binocular vision results in greater depth perception. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesSensesRely more on visionBinocular vision results in greater depth perception.Color visionDecreased sense of smellTeeth are reduced in size and usually are unspecialized.
5Limber shoulders and hips Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesLocomotionFlexible bodiesLimber shoulders and hipsAll primates except humans walk on all four limbs.
6Complex Brain and Behaviors Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesComplex Brain and BehaviorsHave large brains in relation to their body sizeLarger areas devoted to memory and coordinating arm and leg movementProblem-solving abilitiesWell-developed social behaviors
7Newborns are dependent on their Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesReproductive RateHave fewer offspringNewborns are dependent on theirmothers for an extended period of time.Many are endangered.
8Arboreal, or tree-dwelling Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesPrimate GroupsArboreal, or tree-dwellingTerrestrialThe strepsirrhines, or “wet-nosed”The haplorhines, or “dry-nosed”Visualizing Primates
9Have large eyes and ears Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesStrepsirrhinesHave large eyes and earsRely predominantly on smell for hunting and social interactionLemursSifakasIndrisLemurAye-ayes
11Include tarsiers, monkeys, and apes Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesHaplorhinesInclude tarsiers, monkeys, and apesThe apes include gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans.The anthropoids are split into the New World monkeys and the Old World monkeys.
12Most are diurnal and live together in social bands. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesThe New World monkeys are a group of about 60 species of arboreal monkeys.They inhabit the tropical forests of Mexico, Central America, and South America.Most are diurnal and live together in social bands.Distinguished by their prehensile tails
13Old World monkeys live throughout Asia and Africa. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesOld World monkeys live throughout Asia and Africa.Diurnal and live in social groupsNoses tend to be narrower and their bodies are usually larger.None have prehensile tails, and some have no tails.Most Old World monkeys have opposable digits.
14Highly social and have complex vocalizations Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesApes have longer arms than legs, barrel-shaped chests, no tails, and flexible wrists.Highly social and have complex vocalizationsClassified into two subcategories: the lesser apes and the great apes
15Lesser Apes Asian gibbons Siamangs Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesLesser ApesAsian gibbonsSiamangsGenerally move from branch to branch using a hand-over-hand swinging motion called brachiationGibbon
18Lemurlike primates were widespread by about 50 mya. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesPrimate fossils appear in the fossil record at the beginning of the Eocene, about 60 mya.Lemurlike primates were widespread by about 50 mya.By the end of the Eocene, 30–35 mya, the anthropoids had diverged and spread widely.
19The end of the Eocene also saw the appearance of the monkeys. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 PrimatesThe end of the Eocene also saw the appearance of the monkeys.Many scientists hypothesize that New World monkeys evolved from an isolated group of ancestral anthropoids.In Africa and Asia, the anthropoids continued to evolve.
2016.2 Hominoids to Hominins Hominoids Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Hominoids to HomininsHominoidsHominoids include all nonmonkey anthropoids—the living and extinct gibbons, orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans.
21Scientists use fossils to determine when ancestral hominoids diverged. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Hominoids to HomininsScientists use fossils to determine when ancestral hominoids diverged.Scientists also turn to biochemical data to help them in this task.
22Hominins have bigger brains. Thinner and flatter face Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Hominoids to HomininsHomininsThe lineage that most likely led to humans split off from the other African apes sometime between 8 and 5 mya.Hominins have bigger brains.Thinner and flatter faceSmaller teethHigh manual dexterityBipedal
23Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Hominoids to Hominins
24A changing environment might have played only a minor role. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Hominoids to HomininsWhy bipedalism?A changing environment might have played only a minor role.Most successful hominins might have been those that evolved on the edge of the forest and savanna.
25Apelike brains and jaws Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Hominoids to HomininsHominin FossilsAustralopithecines lived in the east-central and southern part of Africa between 4.2 and 1 mya.SmallApelike brains and jawsTeeth and limb joints were humanlike.
26The first australopithecine fossil discovered Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Hominoids to HomininsTaung BabyThe first australopithecine fossil discoveredAustralopithecus africanus likely lived between 3.3 and 2.3 mya.LucyLucy is one of the most complete australopithecine fossils ever found.She was a member of the species A. afarensis, which lived between 4 and 2.9 mya.
27Thrived between 2 and 1.2 mya Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Hominoids to HomininsParanthropusThrived between 2 and 1.2 myaAn offshoot of the human line that lived alongside human ancestors but were not directly related
28Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryThe Genus HomoThe African environment became considerably cooler between 3 and 2.5 mya.Homo species had bigger brains, lighter skeletons, flatter faces, and smaller teeth than their australopithecine ancestors.
30Homo habilis lived in Africa between about 2.4 and 1.4 mya. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryHomo habilis lived in Africa between about 2.4 and 1.4 mya.Brain averaged 650 cm3Smaller browReduced jawFlatter faceMore humanlike teethSmall, long-armed, and retained the ability to climb trees
31Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryHomo habilis
32Homo ergaster emerged within 500,000 years of H. habilis. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryHomo ergaster emerged within 500,000 years of H. habilis.TallerLighterLonger legs and shorter armsBrain averaged 1000 cm3
33Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryHomo ergaster
34Eurasian forms of H. ergaster are called Homo erectus. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryH. ergaster appears to have been the first African Homo species to migrate.Eurasian forms of H. ergaster are called Homo erectus.H. erectus lived between 1.8 million and 400,000 years ago.
35Brain capacity ranged from about 900 cm3 to about 1100 cm3 Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryHomo erectusLarger than H. habilisBrain capacity ranged from about 900 cm3 to about 1100 cm3Longer skull, lower forehead, thicker facial bones, and a prominent browridge
36Homo floresiensis lived about 18,000 years ago. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryHomo floresiensis lived about 18,000 years ago.About 1 m tallBrain and body proportions like all the australopithecines.
37Homo neanderthalensis evolved exclusively in Europe and Asia Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryHomo neanderthalensis evolved exclusivelyin Europe and Asiaabout 200,000years ago.Shorter but had more muscle massLarger brains than modern humansThick skulls, bony browridges, and large noses
38Emergence of Modern Humans Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryEmergence of Modern HumansHomo sapiens is characterized by a more slender appearance than all other Homo species.Thinner skeletons, rounder skulls, and smaller faces with prominent chinsTheir brain capacity averages 1350 cm3.Appeared in the fossil record, in what is now Ethiopia, about 195,000 years ago
39Out-of-Africa Hypothesis Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryOut-of-Africa Hypothesis200,000 years ago, a morphologically diverse genusof hominins werepresent.30,000 years ago, only modern humans remained.Modern humansevolved only once, in Africa, and then migrated.
40Mitochondrial DNA changes very little over time. Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human Ancestry“Mitochondrial Eve”Mitochondrial DNA changes very little over time.The population with the most variation should be the population that has had the longest time to accumulate diversity.H. sapiens emerged in Africa about 200,000 years ago from a hypothetical “Mitochondrial Eve.”
41Developed sophisticated tools and weapons Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Human AncestryCro-MagnonsEarly modern humans expressed themselves symbolically and artistically.Cro-Magnon cave paintingDeveloped sophisticated tools and weaponsThe first to fish, the first to tailor clothing, and the first to domesticate animals
42Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Primate EvolutionChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
43Which is not a characteristic of primates? Chapter 16Primate EvolutionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a characteristic of primates?manual dexteritykeen eyesighthigh reproduction ratelarge brain
44Scientists classify primates into subgroups Chapter 16Primate EvolutionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsScientists classify primates into subgroupsbased on what characteristics?tails, bone structure, and brain sizenoses, eyes, and teethrange, size, and active periodteeth, nails, and range
45Which is not classified as a Great Ape? Chapter 16Primate EvolutionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not classified as a Great Ape?gorillagibbonchimpanzeeorangutan
46What enables primates to have a high level of manual dexterity? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 Formative QuestionsWhat enables primates to have a high levelof manual dexterity?an opposable first digitbinocular color visiondeveloped hind limbshighly moveable arms
47In what group are the anthropoids? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 Formative QuestionsIn what group are the anthropoids?lemurslesser apeshaplorinesstrepsirrhines
48Which represents the journey of the ancestors of New World monkeys? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 Formative QuestionsWhich represents the journey of theancestors of New World monkeys?Asia AfricaEurope AsiaMadagascar AfricaAfrica South America
49What great ape species live in Asia and Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 Formative QuestionsWhat great ape species live in Asia andare the largest arboreal primates?baboonsbonobosgorillasorangutans
50Which group of apes has only one species that survives today? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.1 Formative QuestionsWhich group of apes has only one speciesthat survives today?arborealshomininshominoidslesser apes
51From what type of data was this possible Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Formative QuestionsFrom what type of data was this possibledivergence of hominoids constructed?
52morphological features Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Formative Questionsthe fossil recordDNA comparisonsanthropoid analysismorphological features
53Which is a distinguishing characteristic of hominins? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Formative QuestionsWhich is a distinguishing characteristic ofhominins?bipedalismability to use toolsunspecialized teethcomplex communication
54What advantage does bipedalism have over quadrupedalism? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Formative QuestionsWhat advantage does bipedalism have overquadrupedalism?ability to run fasterless energy requirementsless strain on the hips and backability to travel over long distances
55Which was the first genus of hominins that were truly bipedal? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.2 Formative QuestionsWhich was the first genus of hominins thatwere truly bipedal?AltiatlasiusAustralopithecusHomoProconsul
56What genus of hominins is believed to have Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Formative QuestionsWhat genus of hominins is believed to haveevolved from the australopithecines when theAfrican environment cooled about 2.5 mya?AndrepithecusHomoKenyanthropusParathropus
57What were species in the genus Homo the first to do? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Formative QuestionsWhat were species in the genus Homo thefirst to do?carry objectscontrol firelive in savannaswalk upright
58Which Homo species still had long arms and Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Formative QuestionsWhich Homo species still had long arms andseemed to retain the ability to climb trees?H. erectusH. ergasterH. fluresiensisH. habilis
59Were Neanderthals the ancestors of modern humans? Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Formative QuestionsWere Neanderthals the ancestors of modernhumans?YesNoWe don’t know.
60How does mitochondrial DNA analysis support Chapter 16Primate Evolution16.3 Formative QuestionsHow does mitochondrial DNA analysis supportthe Out-of-Africa hypothesis?Mitochondrial DNA changes occur atdifferent rates.Humans today have very differentmitochondrial DNA.Africans have the greatest diversity intheir mitochondrial DNA.The mitochondrial DNA of humansthroughout the world is identical.
61Use the image to determine the closest living relatives to humans. Chapter 16Primate EvolutionChapter Assessment QuestionsUse the image to determine the closest livingrelatives to humans.Answer: chimpanzees and bonobos
62Describe the foramen magnum and indicate the difference in its Chapter 16Primate EvolutionChapter Assessment QuestionsDescribe theforamen magnumand indicate thedifference in itslocation in eachskeleton.
63in quadrupedal animals (first image) and at the base of the skull in Chapter 16Primate EvolutionChapter Assessment QuestionsAnswer: The foramenmagnum is thehole in the skullwhere the spineextends from thebrain. It is in theback of the skullin quadrupedal animals (first image)and at the base of the skull inhominins (second image).
64The discovery of what fossil ended the debate regarding bipedalism and Chapter 16Primate EvolutionChapter Assessment QuestionsThe discovery of what fossil endedthe debate regarding bipedalism andAustralopithecus?Taung babyLucyJava manProconsul
65Why do most primates have a decreased sense of smell? Chapter 16Primate EvolutionStandardized Test PracticeWhy do most primates have a decreasedsense of smell?They are able to stand upright.They live in tropical regions.They are more active during the day.They have an increased sense of vision.
66What advantage does binocular vision provide? Chapter 16Primate EvolutionStandardized Test PracticeWhat advantage does binocular visionprovide?ability to see at nightbetter color visioncapacity to reasongreater depth perception
67What enables primates to learn and develop complex social behaviors? Chapter 16Primate EvolutionStandardized Test PracticeWhat enables primates to learn and developcomplex social behaviors?ability to stand and walk uprighta large amount of time spent in treeslong-term dependency on parentsfaces that tend to be more flattened
68What was probably associated with the Chapter 16Primate EvolutionStandardized Test PracticeWhat was probably associated with thehunting and/or scavenging lifestyle ofH. ergaster?fire-makinglanguagemigratingsymbolic expression
69What does the early human timeline show Chapter 16Primate EvolutionStandardized Test PracticeWhat does the early human timeline showabout the evolution of hominins?
70Different hominins existed in different parts of the world. Chapter 16Primate EvolutionStandardized Test PracticeDifferent hominins existed in different partsof the world.Hominins that lived at the same time werevery similar.The periods of existence of many earlyhominins overlapped.There is a direct descent from the earlyhominins to modern humans.
71How do most scientists explain the widespread Chapter 16Primate EvolutionStandardized Test PracticeHow do most scientists explain the widespreaddistribution of modern humans on Earth?They evolved by convergent evolution.They evolved by reproductive isolation.They evolved from dispersed populations.They evolved in one place, then migrated.