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Human Evolution Chapter 32-Mader.

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1 Human Evolution Chapter 32-Mader

2 Overview Evolution of Primates Evolution of Hominids Focus on Homo
Human Variation Humans as a selective agent

3 Early Primates Prosimians (~58mya) Monkeys (35mya) Apes (23mya)
Hominids (~6mya)

4 First Arboreal Mammals
The first arboreal mammals probably resembled shrews: long snouts. Good sense of smell. Probably nocturnal. Very active. CLAWS

5 First Arboreal Mammals?

6 Eosimias The First Primate? Comparison with tree shrew

7 Prosimians Lemurs Tarsiers Pottos Loris

8 Tarsier

9 Ring tailed lemur

10 Indri

11 Aye aye what do they sound like?

12 Slender loris

13 Primate Characteristics
What is the major selective pressure associated with life in the trees? How are primates adapted to this life? ?

14 Binocular Color Vision

15 Primate Hands

16 Mobile Limbs Most primates have flat nails as well as sensitive pads on the undersides of fingers and toes. Many also have both an opposable big toe and thumb. Mobile limbs and clawless opposable digits allow primates to freely grasp and release tree limbs.

17 Other important features
Upright posture. Small litter size. Expanded forebrain, larger brain capacity. Advantages?

18 separated.

19 Two main groups of primates:
1. Prosimians – lemurs, lorises, pottos & tarsiers 2. Anthropoids – monkeys, apes and man

20 Prosimians Lemurs Tarsiers Pottos Loris

21 2. Anthropoids = monkeys + apes + man
Old world monkeys New world monkeys Old World Monkey: Long snout Close nostrils Non-prehensile tail New World Monkey: Flat face Wide nostrils Prehensile tail

22 Taxonomy Anthropoids= Hominoids + monkeys
Hominoids= Asian and African Apes + Hominids Hominids= Humans

23 Proconsul- Ancestor to Hominoids?

24 Proconsul A skull of Proconsul africanus from the Kenya National Museum.

25 Selective pressures East Africa Rift Valley


27 Skull Comparisons:

28 Sahelanthropus tchadensis
6 to 7 million years ago Flat face like Homo Cranial capacity about the same as a chimp Walked upright

29 Hominids Bipedal primates.

30 To be Human standard primate characteristics upright, bipedal posture
much expanded brain well defined sexual dimorphism hidden estrus altered female sexual response extended childhood language society culture

31 Homo erectus, Australopithecus,& Human

32 Map of Australopithecine Finds
Map of Australopithecus sites in Africa, with a focus on the East African rift valley and limestone caves of South Africa.

33 “Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis
An Example of Mosaic Evolution


35 A. boisei A. afarensis A. africanus A. robustus

36 Human Ancestors

37 Human Evolution

38 Australopithecus africanus
2.8 million years ago Cranial capacity 460 cc

39 Genus Homo

40 Homo habilis Brain~600cc “Handy Man” Olduwan tools Speech?
Artist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago.

41 Oldowan Tools


43 Homo erectus “Upright Man” Larger brain than H. habilis Migrated
Acheulean tools More advanced culture?

44 Homo erectus

45 Homo erectus

46 Trends in Skull Development


48 Neanderthals Neanderthal (H. neanderthalensis) skeletons were first discovered in Germany’s Neander Valley. Skeletons date back 200,000 years.



51 Neanderthal Culture

52 What happened to Neandertals?
Coexisted w/H. sapiens for up to 60,000 years. Interbred? Killed off? Outcompeted?

53 Neanderthal Man

54 Homo floresiensis – Nature, Oct. 28, 2004

55 Nature Oct 28, 2004

56 Science, Nov 19, 2004

57 Homo sapiens Archaic – 100,000 to 35,000 years BP
Sometimes called Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Modern – 35,000 years BP to present Anatomically modern Sometimes called Homo sapiens sapiens

58 Cro-Magnons Oldest fossils to be designated H. sapiens.
Modern humans who entered Asia and Europe from Africa 100,000 years ago. Aurignacian tools. Accomplished hunters. Language.

59 Cro-Magnon Man Cro-Magnon humans 1,600 cc cranial capacity
Not a different species, just old Homo sapiens from Europe Artist’s reconstruction of a Cro-Magnon man

60 Archaic H. sapiens Culture
Art Female figurines 27,000 to 22,000 years ago Called “venuses,”

61 Archaic H. sapiens Culture

62 Human Variation Responses to the environment: Bergmann’s Rule
Allen’s Rule

63 New World Humans

64 Sequence of Human Evolution One of several possibilities
Homo neanderthalensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Homo erectus Common ancestor Homo habilis Homo sapiens Modern apes

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