Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Human Evolution Chapter 32-Mader. Overview Evolution of Primates Evolution of Primates Evolution of Hominids Evolution of Hominids Focus on Homo Focus.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Human Evolution Chapter 32-Mader. Overview Evolution of Primates Evolution of Primates Evolution of Hominids Evolution of Hominids Focus on Homo Focus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Evolution Chapter 32-Mader

2 Overview Evolution of Primates Evolution of Primates Evolution of Hominids Evolution of Hominids Focus on Homo Focus on Homo Human Variation Human Variation Humans as a selective agent Humans as a selective agent

3 Early Primates Prosimians (~58mya) Prosimians (~58mya) Monkeys (35mya) Monkeys (35mya) Apes (23mya) Apes (23mya) Hominids (~6mya) Hominids (~6mya)

4 First Arboreal Mammals The first arboreal mammals probably resembled shrews: The first arboreal mammals probably resembled shrews: long snouts. long snouts. Good sense of smell. Good sense of smell. Probably nocturnal. Probably nocturnal. Very active. Very active. CLAWS CLAWS

5 First Arboreal Mammals? ?

6 Eosimias The First Primate? The First Primate? Comparison with tree shrew Comparison with tree shrew Comparison with tree shrew Comparison with tree shrew

7 Tarsiers Lemurs Loris PottosProsimians

8 Tarsier

9 Ring tailed lemur

10 Indri

11 Aye aye what do they sound like? This

12 Slender loris

13 Primate Characteristics What is the major selective pressure associated with life in the trees? What is the major selective pressure associated with life in the trees? How are primates adapted to this life? How are primates adapted to this life?

14 Binocular Color Vision

15 Primate Hands

16 Mobile Limbs Most primates have flat nails as well as sensitive pads on the undersides of fingers and toes. Most primates have flat nails as well as sensitive pads on the undersides of fingers and toes. Many also have both an opposable big toe and thumb. Many also have both an opposable big toe and thumb. Mobile limbs and clawless opposable digits allow primates to freely grasp and release tree limbs. Mobile limbs and clawless opposable digits allow primates to freely grasp and release tree limbs.

17 Other important features Upright posture. Upright posture. Small litter size. Small litter size. Expanded forebrain, larger brain capacity. Expanded forebrain, larger brain capacity.Advantages?

18

19 Two main groups of primates: 1. Prosimians – lemurs, lorises, pottos & tarsiers 1. Prosimians – lemurs, lorises, pottos & tarsiers 2. Anthropoids – monkeys, apes and man 2. Anthropoids – monkeys, apes and man

20 Tarsiers Lemurs Loris PottosProsimians

21 ANTHROPOIDS 2. Anthropoids = monkeys + apes + man a.Monkeys: Old world monkeysOld world monkeys New world monkeysNew world monkeys New World Monkey: Flat face Wide nostrils Prehensile tail Old World Monkey: Long snout Close nostrils Non-prehensile tail

22 Taxonomy Anthropoids= Hominoids + monkeys Anthropoids= Hominoids + monkeys Hominoids= Asian and African Apes + Hominids Hominoids= Asian and African Apes + Hominids Hominids= Humans Hominids= Humans

23 Proconsul- Ancestor to Hominoids?

24 Proconsul A skull of Proconsul africanus from the Kenya National Museum.

25 Selective pressures East Africa Rift Valley East Africa Rift Valley

26

27 Skull Comparisons:

28 Sahelanthropus tchadensis 6 to 7 million years ago 6 to 7 million years ago Flat face like Homo Flat face like Homo Cranial capacity about the same as a chimp Cranial capacity about the same as a chimp Walked upright Walked upright

29 Hominids Bipedal primates. Bipedal primates.

30 To be Human standard primate characteristics standard primate characteristics upright, bipedal posture upright, bipedal posture much expanded brain much expanded brain well defined sexual dimorphism well defined sexual dimorphism hidden estrus hidden estrus altered female sexual response altered female sexual response extended childhood extended childhood language language society society culture culture

31 Homo erectus, Australopithecus,& Human

32 Map of Australopithecine Finds Map of Australopithecus sites in Africa, with a focus on the East African rift valley and limestone caves of South Africa.

33 “Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis An Example of Mosaic Evolution

34

35 A. afarensis A. africanus A. boisei A. robustus

36 Human Ancestors

37 Human Evolution

38 Australopithecus africanus 2.8 million years ago 2.8 million years ago Cranial capacity 460 cc Cranial capacity 460 cc

39 Genus Homo

40 Homo habilis Artist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago. Brain~600cc “Handy Man” Olduwan tools Speech?

41 Oldowan Tools

42

43 Homo erectus “Upright Man” “Upright Man” Larger brain than H. habilis Migrated Acheulean tools More advanced culture?

44 Homo erectus

45

46 Trends in Skull Development

47

48 Neanderthals Neanderthal (H. neanderthalensis) skeletons were first discovered in Germany’s Neander Valley. Neanderthal (H. neanderthalensis) skeletons were first discovered in Germany’s Neander Valley. Skeletons date back 200,000 years. Skeletons date back 200,000 years.

49

50

51 Neanderthal Culture

52 What happened to Neandertals? Coexisted w/H. sapiens for up to 60,000 years. Coexisted w/H. sapiens for up to 60,000 years. Interbred? Interbred? Killed off? Killed off? Outcompeted? Outcompeted?

53 Neanderthal Man

54 Homo floresiensis – Nature, Oct. 28, 2004

55 Nature Oct 28, 2004

56 Science, Nov 19, 2004

57 Homo sapiens Archaic – 100,000 to 35,000 years BP Archaic – 100,000 to 35,000 years BP Sometimes called Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Sometimes called Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Modern – 35,000 years BP to present Modern – 35,000 years BP to present Anatomically modern Anatomically modern Sometimes called Homo sapiens sapiens Sometimes called Homo sapiens sapiens

58 Cro-Magnons Oldest fossils to be designated H. sapiens. Oldest fossils to be designated H. sapiens. Modern humans who entered Asia and Europe from Africa 100,000 years ago. Modern humans who entered Asia and Europe from Africa 100,000 years ago. Aurignacian tools. Aurignacian tools. Accomplished hunters. Accomplished hunters. Language. Language.

59 Cro-Magnon Man Cro-Magnon humans Cro-Magnon humans 1,600 cc cranial capacity 1,600 cc cranial capacity Not a different species, just old Homo sapiens from Europe Not a different species, just old Homo sapiens from Europe Artist’s reconstruction of a Cro-Magnon man

60 Archaic H. sapiens Culture Art Art Female figurines Female figurines 27,000 to 22,000 years ago 27,000 to 22,000 years ago Called “venuses,” Called “venuses,”

61 Archaic H. sapiens Culture

62 Human Variation Responses to the environment: Bergmann’s Rule Bergmann’s Rule Allen’s Rule Allen’s Rule

63 New World Humans

64 Sequence of Human Evolution One of several possibilities Common ancestor Homo sapiens Modern apes Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Homo habilis Homo erectus Homo neanderthalensis


Download ppt "Human Evolution Chapter 32-Mader. Overview Evolution of Primates Evolution of Primates Evolution of Hominids Evolution of Hominids Focus on Homo Focus."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google