2 I. Primate OriginsA. Primate –a group of mammals that includes lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans.B. Primates all have the following characteristics:1. Opposable Thumbsa) for holding and grasping2. Binocular Vision (2 eyes in front of head)a) Allows for depth perception3. Large brain volume4. Flexible arm joints (shoulders and elbows)5. Feet that can grasp things
6 I. Primate EvolutionC. Similarities among the groups of primates suggest that they share an evolutionary history1. Similarities includea) Fossil evidenceb) Anatomicalc) Geneticd) Biochemical (DNA)D. Humans did not evolve from monkeys, but they do share ancestors.
7 I. Primate Evolution E. Classes of Primates 1. Strepsirrhines-small, large eyed, nocturnal primatesa) non-human likeb) date back to 50 myac) includes lemurs, lorises, pottos, galagos2. Haplorhines-primates with larger brains and more upright posture than strepsirrhinesa) Consists of tarsiers and anthropoids
8 II. Anthropoid Evolution Anthropoids – Human like primates1. Includes old world monkeys, new world monkeys, and homonoidsNew world monkeys1) Prehensile (grasping) tail – acts as a 5th limb for gripping and climbing2) Spider monkeys and marmosetsb) Old world monkeys1) No prehensile tail2) Colobus monkeys and baboons
10 II. Anthropoid Evolution c) Hominoids1) Even more human-like, walked upright on two legs2) Evolved 5-8 mya3) Includes apes and humansa) Apes include chimps, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons and bonobos
13 III. Hominid EvolutionAnthropologists suggest that the evolution of ancestral hominids occurred in response to environmental changes that forced some ancestral apes to leave their treetop environments and move to the ground in search of food.
14 III. Hominid EvolutionB. Other human traits that separate them from the apes and monkeys:Larger brainBipedal3. Bowl shaped pelvis for birthing young with larger brains4. Curved spine (able to be more upright)
16 III. Hominid EvolutionC. Incomplete fossil finds of early human skulls, in Africa, shows that early humans evolved only million years ago.1. Australopithecines – Early hominid (“southern apes from africa”)a) Possessed both apelike and human like characteristicsb) Named her “Lucy”
19 III. Homonid Evolution D. Then came Homo habilis (“handy man”) 1. Large brains and the ability to use tools2. Evolved around 1.5 and 2 myaThen came Homo erectus (“upright man”)larger brain and more human like braina) Fossils evidence indicates this group used fire, tools and lived in cavesb) Spread through Africa, Asia and into Europe before going extinct – years ago
22 Then cam Homo sapiens1. Evolved about – years ago in Africa, the Middle East and Asia2. Resemble homo erectus but have a much larger brain case (skull)G. Neanderthals lived in Europe, Asia and the Middle East from – years ago1. Skilled hunters, spoke a language and had religious views2. Thick, heavy bones
24 III. Homonid EvolutionH. Cro-Magnons - A more modern type of homo sapiens spread through Europe between and years ago1. Identical to modern humans in many aspects2. Did not evolve from neanderthals3. Neanderthals were a side branch of homo sapiens
25 III. Homonid Evolution4. Fossil evidence suggests that Humans have not changed anatomicaly for the last years