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Chapter 26: Hormones and the Endocrine System

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1 Chapter 26: Hormones and the Endocrine System

2 Hormones A chemical signal that is carried by the circulatory system and that communicates regulatory messages throughout the body Made and secreted by organs called endocrine glands Endocrine system

3 Target cells Hormones may travel to all parts of the body but only certain types of cells are equipped to respond

4 Neurosecretory cells Specialized nerve cells Conduct nerve signals
Make and secrete hormones into the blood Epinephrine: function in flight or fight hormone

5 Water soluble hormones
Embedded in the plasma membrane of target cells and project outward from the cell surface Hormone molecule binds to the receptor protein and activates it A signal transduction pathway begins The final relay molecule activates a protein that carries out the cell’s response

6 Lipid soluble hormones
Steroid hormones Bind to receptors inside the cell

7 Endocrine system Pineal gland: a pea sized mass of tissue near the center of the brain Synthesizes and secretes melatonin (a hormone that links environmental light condition with biological rhythms Thymus gland: lies under the breastbone, secretes hormones that stimulate the production of T cells

8 Hypothalamus Receives information from nerves about the internal condition of the body and about the external environment, then responds this information by sending out appropriate nervous or endocrine signals Its hormonal signals directly controls the pituitary gland

9 Pituitary Gland 2 distinct parts: a posterior lobe and an anterior lobe Posterior pituitary: actually an extension of the hypothalamus and stores and secretes two hormones that are made by the hypothalamus Anterior pituitary: synthesizes and secretes numerous hormones directly into the blood, they control the activity of other endocrine glands

10 Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland
Oxytocin: stimulates the contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells ADH Growth hormone: stimulates growth and metabolic functions Prolactin: stimulates milk production Follicle Stimulating Hormone: stimulates the production of ova and sperm Lutenizing hormone: stimulates ovaries and testes Thyroid stimulating: stimulates the thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic: stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids

11 Thyroid Located just under the larynx
Produces thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones which play crucial roles in development and maturation and maintain normal blood pressure, heart rate, muscle toner, digestion and reproductive function

12 Parathyroid Four glands embedded in the surface of the thyroid
Calcitonin (from thyroid) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulate blood calcium levels Calcitonin lowers calcium levels and PTH raises it

13 Calcium homeostasis

14 Pancreas Produces 2 hormones that play a large role in managing the body’s energy supplies Islets of Langerhans: clusters of cells in the pancreas that release insulin and glucagon Insulin and glucagon regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood

15 Glucose homeostasis

16 Diabetes Hormonal disease in which the body cells are unable to absorb glucose from the blood Type I diabetes- an autoimmune disease-white blood cells of the body’s own immune system attack and destroy the pancreas beta cells-generally develops in childhood Type II diabetes-either a deficiency of insulin or by reduced responsiveness of target cells to insulin in the blood-generally appears after the age of 40 Gestational diabetes

17 Adrenal Glands Sit on top of the kidneys
Made up of adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex Produce the fight or flight hormones which ensure a rapid, short term response to stress Triggered by epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

18 Adrenal Gland hormones
Mineralocorticoids-act mainly on salt and water balance Aldosterone-reabsorbs Na ions and water so increases the volume of the blood and raises blood pressure in response to stress Glucocorticoids-mainly mobilizes cellular fuel, reinforcing glucagon Promote the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrates such as fats and proteins Very high levels can suppress the body’s defense system

19 Sex hormones Gonads-sex cells 3 major categories Estrogen Progestins

20 Sex hormones Estrogens-maintain the female reproductive system and promote the development of such female features as smaller body size, higher-pitched voice, breasts and wider hips Progestins-primarily involved in preparing and maintaining the uterus to support an embryo

21 Sex hormones Androgens- stimulate the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system Testosterone-trigger development of male characteristics like lower pitched voice, facial hair, and large skeletal muscles


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