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Chapter 45 Chemical Signals in Animals

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1 Chapter 45 Chemical Signals in Animals
The endocrine system and the nervous system are structurally, chemically, and functionally related.

2 Regulatory systems Hormone~ chemical signal secreted into body fluids (blood) communicating regulatory messages Target cells~ body cells that respond to hormones Endocrine system/glands~ hormone secreting system/glands (ductless); exocrine glands secrete chemicals (sweat, mucus, enzymes) through ducts Neurosecretory cells~ specialized nerve cells that secrete hormones Feedback mechanisms ~ negative and positive (feature that is also common in the nervous system)

3 Local regulators: cells adjacent to or near point of secretion
Growth factors ~ proteins for cell proliferation Nitric oxide (NO) ~ (highly reactive& potentially toxic) neurotransmitter; cell destruction (bacteria, cancer cells); vessel dilation Prostaglandins ~ modified fatty acids secreted by placenta (induce labor) and immune system (fever, pain); also found in semen (contract smooth muscle in uterus helping convey sperm to egg.

4 Mode of Action: Chemical Signaling
1- Plasma membrane reception • signal-transduction pathways (neurotransmitters, growth factors, most hormones) 2- Cell nucleus reception • steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, some local regulators

5 Vertebrate Endocrine System Page 961
Tropic hormones ~ a hormone that has another endocrine gland as a target Hypothalamus: causes release of hormones produced by posterior pituitary and regulates anterior pit. Pituitary gland Pineal gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Thymus Adrenal glands Pancreas Gonads (ovary, testis)

6 The hypothalamus & pituitary
Releasing and inhibiting hormones Anterior pituitary: Growth (GH)~bones √gigantism/dwarfism √acromegaly Prolactin (PRL)~mammary glands; milk production Follicle-stimulating (FSH) & Luteinizing (LH)~ovaries/testes Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)~ thyroid Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)~ adrenal cortex Melanocyte-stimulating (pigment cells)(MSH) Endorphins~natural ‘opiates’; brain pain receptors


8 The pituitary The posterior pituitary:
Oxytocin~ uterine and mammary gland cell contraction Antidiuretic (ADH)~ retention of water by kidneys, increase permiability of epithelium to water, amplifies water reabsorption

9 The pineal, thyroid, & parathyroid
Melatonin~ pineal gland; biological rhythms Thyroid hormones: Calcitonin~ lowers blood calcium Thyroxine~ metabolic processes Parathyroid (PTH)~ raises blood calcium

10 The pancreas Islets of Langerhans (clusters of endocrine cells that secrete hormones) Alpha cells: •glucagon~ raises blood glucose levels Beta cells: •insulin~ lowers blood glucose levels Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent; autoimmune disorder, attack mounted on pancreas cells) Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent; reduced responsiveness in insulin targets)


12 The adrenal glands Adrenal medulla (catecholamines-synthesisized from AA tyrosine): •epinephrine & norepinephrine~ increase basal metabolic rate (blood glucose and pressure) Adrenal cortex (corticosteroids): •glucocorticoids (cortisol)~ raise blood glucose •mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)~ reabsorption of Na+ and K+

13 The gonads Steroid hormones: precursor is cholesterol
androgens (testosterone)~ sperm formation; male secondary sex characteristics, gonadotropin Estrogens (estradiol)~uterine lining growth; female secondary sex characteristics; gonadotropin Progestins (progesterone)~uterine lining growth

14 Signal Transduction Pathway
Signal- transduction pathways allow for small amounts of a hormone to have a large effect.

15 Endocrine System How are chemical signals in the body transmitted from cell to cell? Chemical signals called transmitters include amino acids, polypeptides, and gases that can be received by other cells via a protein receptor on the surface of the receiving cell or by entering the cell directly.

16 What are some of the sources of the body’s chemical signals?
Neurotransmitters from nerve cells. Endocrine signals from endocrine glands. How are endocrine signals different from nerve cell signals? Neurotransmitters are usually small, nitrogen-containing compounds that are conveyed from one specialized nerve cell to another along specific nerve highways throughout the body and are designed to elicit immediate responses

17 How are endocrine signals similar to neurotransmitters?
Endocrine signals are usually hormones secreted from glands that use blood vessels to disperse their signal molecules, to elicit a slower response. How are endocrine signals similar to neurotransmitters? Some molecules, such as epinephrine, serve as both neurotransmitters and endocrine signals;some specialized nerve cells called neurosecretory cells are located in the endocrine glands and secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

18 Hormones Hormones, the most common class of signal molecule used by endocrine glands, affect every cell in the body. How is it possible that very diverse types of cells can respond to these signals? While some hormones require surface receptors, most hormones because they are small and non-polar, can pass through the cell membranes without a channel or receptor and proceed directly to a receptor in the cytoplasm or go into the nucleus to act as a gene activator.

19 Trophic Hormones Some endocrine signals target other glands, stimulating them to secrete their own signals. What is this type of domino effect called? These signals are called trophic hormones.

20 Endocrine Review Brain: hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal
Pituitary: Anterior Posterior Endorphines ADH GH (Growth Hormones) Oxytocin ACTH (adrenal cortex TSH (thyroid stimulating) PRL (prolactin) LSH,FSH (gonads) MSH (Melanocyte cells-melatonin (skin pigment)

21 Parathyroid (PTH)-Increase Ca+
Metabolism (throxine)-metabolism, (calcitonin) decrease Ca+ Parathyroid (PTH)-Increase Ca+ A dramatic drop in calcium would cause convulsive contractions of skeletal muscles Adrenal Glands (top of kidneys)- fight or flight Medulla norepinephrine and epinephrine increase metabolism, increase glucose (breakdown of glycogen)& pressure -Cortex- increase glucose, reabsorption of k+, Na+

22 Pancreas- Gonads- steroids, Alpha cells (glucagon)-increase glucose
Beta cells (insulin) decrease Gonads- steroids, testosterone, estrogens, progestins

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