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Controls many body functions –exerts control by releasing hormones into the bloodstream that are then delivered to cells –Hormones aid in cell communication.

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Presentation on theme: "Controls many body functions –exerts control by releasing hormones into the bloodstream that are then delivered to cells –Hormones aid in cell communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Controls many body functions –exerts control by releasing hormones into the bloodstream that are then delivered to cells –Hormones aid in cell communication and helps regulate cell function –Hormones affect other endocrine glands or body systems Works with the nervous system –Hormones can promote or inhibit nerve impulses

2 Circulating hormones pass from the cells that make them into interstitial fluid

3 Local Hormones act on neighboring cells or the same cell that made it

4 Water soluble hormones –Amine hormones –Peptide hormones –Protein hormones Lipid soluble hormones –Steroid hormones –Sex hormones –Prostaglandins Estrogen & Testosterone Regulate salt Regulate blood pressure Metabolism Regulate digestion Regulate blood sugar

5 Exocrine glands – secrete their hormones to target tissues via ducts. Endocrine glands - secrete their hormones into interstitial fluid Two types of glands Metabolism Energy balance Immune system Growth & development Reproduction Digestion

6 Thymus gland

7 The hypothalamus is the master of the pituitary gland

8 Secretes hormones that directly regulate many body functions and controls functions of other glands Major connection between endocrine & nervous system The Pituitary Gland is divided into two areas –structurally and functionally different –each area has separate types of hormone production.

9 The Thyroid Stimulating Hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones

10 Growth hormone (hGH) Growth of skeletal muscles and long bones of body, builds protein, stimulates cells to grow and divide, breaks down fats

11 Folicle stimulating hormone & Luteinizing hormone stimulate maturation & release of eggs from ovary, Stimulates sperm production

12 Oxytocin (OT) (the natural form of pitocin) stimulates uterine contractions during labor, causes let down of milk from the breast. Prolactin (PRL) Initiates milk production from mammary glands

13 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones that increases blood sugar Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Causes the kidneys to reabsorb water from the forming urine and adding it back to the blood

14 Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) When stimulated (by TSH or by cold), these are released the metabolic rate, important for normal tissue growth and development esp reproductive and nervous systems Lies in the anterior neck just below the larynx Calcitonin Decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be deposited in the bones

15 Small, pea-shaped glands, located in the neck near the thyroid Usually 4 - number can vary Produce parathyroid hormone - level of calcium in blood

16 Duodenum Located in the folds of the duodenum Both endocrine and exocrine functions Secretes several key digestive enzymes Islets of Langerhans - include 3 cell types: alpha ( ) release glucagon, essential for controlling blood glucose levels. beta ( ) release insulin (antagonistic to glucagon). delta ( ) produce somatostatin, which inhibits both glucagon and insulin

17 Adrenal Medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine Adrenal Cortex secretes 3 classes of steroidal hormones – gluticocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and Androgens

18 The Ovaries are located in the abdominal cavity adjacent to the uterus. Under the control of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary they manufacture estrogen protesterone The Testes are located in the scrotum Under the control of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary they manufacture sperm testosterone

19 Growth hormone imbalance Thyroxin imbalance

20 Increased blood pressure Hypothalmus Pituitary releases ADH Kidneys hold on to water Pituitary is signaled Blood pressure decreases

21 Kidney Adrenal gland JuxtaGlomerular Apparatus Stimulus Receptor Receptor Effector Effector Response OR act as a Stimulus Receptor


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