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By Samantha Douglass & Ashley Walker

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1 By Samantha Douglass & Ashley Walker
Endocrine System By Samantha Douglass & Ashley Walker

2 Information Made up of endocrine glands that secrete hormones.
Uses the blood stream to get to the target cells Is indirect control. And controls tissues regulatory actions and homeostasis. It’s speed to get places is like mailing a letter It has more sustained impulses It is a “duct” less system. It gets secreted then heads directly to the blood stream.

3 Two Types of Hormones Steroid hormones – made from cholesterol, it is lipid based. Small in size, proteins are synthesized as directed by the hormone. Non – Steroid hormones – is amino Acid based, big in size. Uses the 2nd messenger system, and activates proteins.

4 Reproductive System -- Ovaries
Hormone: Estrogen Gland Source: Ovaries Targets: most bodies cells and female reproductive organs. Action: Develop of 2nd sex characteristics in females. Supports ova maturation. Works with Progesterone on breast development and menstrual cycles. Stimulus for release: Follicle stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone. Inhibition: Negative Feedback mechanism Hormone: Progesterone Gland Source: ovaries (corpus Luteum) Targets: uterus and mammary glands (breasts) Action: prepares uterine lining for fertilized egg, causes swelling of the breasts (works with prolactin) Stimulus for release: Luteinizing Hormone Inhibition: Negative Feedback mechanism.

5 Reproductive System -- Testicles
Hormone: Testosterone Gland Sources: Testicles Targets: most body cells and seminiferous tubules Action: stimulates production of sperm, 2nd sex characteristics of males, promotes protein synthesis in skeletal muscles (muscle bulk), repair, and maintenance. Stimulus for Release: Luteinizing Hormone Inhibition: Negative Feedback mechanism

6 Pituitary Gland -- Anterior
Hormone: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Targets: the follicle cells of the ovary and seminiferous tubules in the testis. Hormone: Growth Hormone (GH) Targets: all cells in the body Action: Stimulates growth and repair; binds to receptors on surface of liver cells; stimulates them to release insulin; like Growth-Factor-1 (GF-1) acts directly on ends of long bones. Release of this hormone is controlled by GH releasing hormone and GH release – inhibiting hormone.

7 Pituitary Gland – Anterior (cont.)
Hormone: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Target: Thyroid Action: Stimulates thyroid to secrete it’s own hormone (T3 & T4). Stimulus for release: The level of thyroid hormones in the blood. Hormone: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Targets: Adrenals Stimulates adrenal gland to produce cortisol hormone. Also produces aldosterone and testosterone.

8 Pituitary Gland – Anterior (cont.)
Hormone: Prolactin (PRL) Targets: Breasts Stimulates breasts to produce milk. Stimulated (prolactin secretion) by TRH/repressed by estrogen and dopamine. Hormone: Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Targets: Ovaries(women) and Testes(men). Controls reproductive functioning/sexual characteristics. Stimulates ovaries to produce estrogen and testes to produce testosterone and sperm.

9 Pituitary Gland – Anterior (cont.)
Hormone: Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

10 Pituitary Gland -- Posterior
Hormone: Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Reduces volume of water that kidneys secrete. Hypothalamus regulates ADH secretions. Hormone: Oxytocin (OT) Contracts smooth muscles in uterine wall, causing uterine contractions in later stages of childbirth.

11 Adrenal Gland Hormone: Aldosterone (zona glomerolus cortex)
Gland source: Adrenal gland (cortex) Targets: Kidneys Action: increase sodium levels in blood and increases blood BP and water volume. Stimulus for release: Renin-Angiotension System. Hormone: Cortisol (Stress hormone) Gland Source: Adrenal gland (zona fasciculata) Targets: adipose tissue and liver. Action: Gluconeogenesis Stimulus for release: Stress Inhibition: Negative feedback mechanism

12 Adrenal Gland Hormone: Androgens
Gland Source: Adrenal Medulla (zona reticularis) Targets: Ovaries and Testes. Action: Increase in cell metabolism, red blood cell production; in adults, plays role in sex drive, and provides female hormones after menopause. Stimulus: ACTH from pituitary. Inhibition: Negative Feedback. Hormone: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Gland Source: Adrenal Medulla 80% - 85% Epinepherine 15% - 20% Norepinephrine Targets: Heart; blood vessels; respiratory system; skeletal muscles; and liver Action: up blood sugar; up heart rate; up blood pressure; dialaate bronchii; and up blood flow to heart, brain, and muscles Stimulation for Release: Nerve impulses from sympathetic Nervous system Inhibition: Nerve impulses end, causes liver and kidneys to absorb the hormones

13 Pancreas Gland Hormone: Insulin
Gland Source: Pancreas – Islets of Langerhans Targets: All body cells except liver, kidneys, and brain. Action: Lowers blood sugar Stimulus for Response: high blood sugar Inhibition: Negative feedback mechanism bases on low blood sugar Hormone: Glucagon Gland Source: Islet of Langerhans (pancreas) Targets: Liver and adipose tissue(fat) Action: “tells” liver to convert glycogen to glucose, increase blood sugar levels, and turn fat into glucose and turn protein into glucose. Stimulation for Release: low blood sugar Inhibition: Negative feedback mechanism

14 Parathyroid Gland Hormone: Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Gland Source: Parathyroid Gland Target: Bones, Kidneys, and Intestine Action: Controls amount of calcium in blood and bones Stimulus for release: Stimulates osteoclasts to brake down and release calcium. Inhibition: Negative Feedback mechanism

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