Presentation on theme: "BY: DR. JAMALUDDIN BIN HJ. MUHAMAD"— Presentation transcript:
1 BY: DR. JAMALUDDIN BIN HJ. MUHAMAD ENDOCRINE SYSTEMBY:DR. JAMALUDDIN BIN HJ. MUHAMADPAKAR PERUNDING PEDIATRIKHOSPITAL TUANKU FAUZIAHKANGAR, PERLIS.
2 FUNCTION OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Water balance – controlling the solute concentration of the blood.Uterine contractions and milk release-delivery of the newborn and breast milk flowGrowth, metabolism and tissue maturation-many tissues, adult features.Ion regulations-regulates Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the blood.Heart rate and blood pressure regulation-for physical activity.Blood glucose controlImmune system regulationsReproductive functions control
3 HormonesDefination: secreted by the endocrine glands (ductless gland), its effect away from the glands-target tissue.Intracellular chemical signals transported in the blood.Receptors-membrane bound. intracellularHormone bound with the receptor to produce effect.
5 Hormone – peptide / proteins - steroids / lipidRegulation of Hormone secretions some times regulated by other hormonesOther hormones:Prostaglandins inflamationErythroproeitin productionHuman chronic gonadotophris (placenta)
6 Hormones – protein, lipids or peptides Protein / most peptide hormones bind to receptor on the cell membrane causePermeability changesProduction of intracellular chemical signalsLipid – soluble hormoneseg: steroid and thyroid hormoneEffect : enter the cell and bind to receptor inside the cell effects.
7 REGULATOR OF HORMON SECRETION Secretion of hormones is control by negative – feedback mechanismSecretion of hormones controlled byChemicalOther hormonesNervous system
8 PITUITARY AND HYPOTHALAMUS Pituitary – infundibulum – brain.Anterior and posterior pituitarySection of hormones from anterior pituitary controlled by hormones from hypothalamusSection of hormones from posterior pituitary control by action potentions caried by axchy from the hypothalamus.
12 FSH :Follicle maturation and estrogen secretion in ovary ; sperm productionPROLACTIN :Stemulates milk productionADH :water reabsorption (regulation of blood volume)
13 OXYTOCIN :urine contractionmilk “let-down”THYROID GLAND :Thyroid hormones - thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)Function :metabolic ratesNormal process of growth and maturation
14 CALCITONIN :parafollicular cellsFunction :Ca2+ level (resulate Ca2+ level)rate of bone breakdown
15 PARATHYROID GLANDS :PTH (parathyroid hormone)Function:bone breakdown by osteoclastsvitamin D synthesisCa2+ levels
16 ADRENAL :Medulla - epinephrine, norepinephrineEpinephrine, norepinephrine :- cardiac output- blood flow to skeletal muscles, heart,glucose in the blood,fatty acids# prepare body for physical activity
17 ii) Cortex - Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens - Na+ reabsorption & water retention- H2O Excretion (blood concentration)
19 b. Cortisol :fat and protein breakdownglucose (CHO metabolism)- maintain blood pressure- inhibit inflamation and immune responsec. Androgens :female sexual drive, pubic hair and axillary hair growth
20 Glucogen glucogen breakdown glucose levelRenin (pathway)angiotensionogenBP Reninangiotensin Iangiotensin II aldosterone secretionVasocontraction BP Na+ retentionK+ excretionH2O retention
21 Reproductive organs Testes Testosterone - sperm cell production - maintenance offunctional reproductiveorgans, secondary sexualcharacteritics- male sex behaviorOvaries Estrogen & Uterine and mammary glandprogesterone development & function- external genitalia- secondary sexual characteristic- sexual behavior- menstrual cycle
22 Thymus gland thymosin - promotes immune systemdevelopment andfunctionPineal body melatonin - regulate theonsent of puberty
23 Calcium Metabolism Calcium level is maintain If Ca2+ PTH secretion calcitonin breakdown of bone matrixsecretion by osteoclastsCa2+ releasebreakdown of Ca2+ reabsorption in the kidneysbone maxtrix by Ca2+ reabsorption from small intestineosteoclasts (through Vit. D)
24 If Ca2+ level stimulate parathyroid glandPTH secretionscalcitonin breakdown of bone matrix by osteoclastsecretion Ca2+ releaseCa2+ reabsorption by the kidneysbreakdown Vitamin D synthesis Ca2+of bone matrix Absorption from the small intestine
25 Regulation of Blood Glucose Level glucose pancreatic islets cellsinsulin secretionsuptake of glucose by thetissuesglucose glycogen (skeletal muscle, liver)glucose adipose tissueglucose level
26 glucose pancreatic islets cell insulin secretionsInsulin is an anabolic hormone