Presentation on theme: "The Endocrine System (11.0)"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Endocrine System (11.0) Endocrine System: A collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones to regulate your metabolism, chemical reactions, water balance, reproductive functioning, and your body’s growth and development.Includes all endocrine cells and tissues of the body.
2 Endocrine and Nervous System (11.4) Endocrine SystemNervous SystemMaintains homeostasisUses hormones for regulationResponds slowly with long lasting effects.Maintains homeostasisUses nerve impulses for regulationResponds quickly with short lasting effects.
3 Endocrine vs. Exocrine (11.3) Endocrine: secretes substances directly into the blood stream.Example: hormonesExocrine: secretes substances into ducts onto epithelial surfacesExamples: sweat and saliva.
4 Key Terms (11.0/11.1)Hormones – chemical substances released by endocrine glands into the blood stream.Target Cells – cells with specific receptors for hormones to act on.Glands – a group of cells that secrete a product.
5 Negative Feedback (11.8)A self regulating system that works to achieve balance in the body.Ex. maintaining proper hormone levels or body temperature.If hormone levels rise – negative feedback will inhibit further secretion of that hormone.If hormone levels fall – negative feedback will begin secreting more of that hormone.
7 The “Master” Gland (11.10)The Endocrine system consists of several glands located in various parts of the body.Pituitary gland: a small stalk hanging from the base of the brain, controlled by the hypothalamus known as the Master Gland.It’s primary function is to control other glands by secreting hormones.
8 The Endocrine System (11.10) The Pituitary Gland is divided into 2 areas, which differ structurally and functionallyEach area has separate types of hormone production.
9 Posterior Pituitary (11.10/12) OxytocinStimulates uterus for contractionscauses “let down” of milk from the breast.Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (vasopressin)causes the kidney to retain water.
10 Anterior Pituitary (11.10/12) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)stimulates the thyroid gland to release it’s hormones, thus increasing metabolic rateGrowth hormone (GH)Stimulates bone and cell growth and reproductionCauses an increase in glucose levels by reducing how much is taken in by tissues.Robert Wadlow – 8’11.1“
11 Anterior Pituitary (11.10/12) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids which affect glucose metabolism.Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)stimulates maturation of ovarian follicle and spermatogenesisLuteinizing hormone (LH)Stimulates release of eggs from ovary, and production of testosterone.
13 Thyroid Gland (11.10/12) Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T3) Located in the anterior neck just below the larynyx and secretes:Thyroxine (T4)Triiodothyronine (T3)When stimulated (by TSH or by cold), these are released into the circulatory system and the metabolic rate of carbs, lipids, and proteins.
14 Parathyroid gland (11.10/12)small, pea-shaped glands, located in the neck near the thyroidproduce parathyroid hormone (PTH) – level of calcium in bloodHypocalcemia can result if parathyroids are removed or destroyed.
15 Pancreas (11.10/12) located in the folds of the duodenum has both endocrine (hormones) and exocrine (digestive juices) functionssecretes several key digestive enzymesIslets of Langerhansspecialized tissues in which the endocrine functions of the pancreas occursInclude 3 types of cells that secrete an important hormone:alpha ( )beta ()delta ()
16 Pancreas (11.10/12)Alpha () cells release glucagon, essential for controlling blood glucose levels.When blood glucose levels fall, cells the amount of glucagon in the blood .Glucagon stimulates the liver to breakdown glycogen and amino acids into glucose.
17 Pancreas (11.10/12)Beta Cells () release insulin (antagonistic to glucagon).Insulin the rate at which various body cells take up glucose. Thus, insulin lowers the blood glucose level.Insulin is rapidly broken down by the liver and must be secreted constantly.
18 Adrenal Glands (11.10/12) 2 small glands that sit atop both kidneys. Each has 2 divisions, each with different functions.Adrenal MedullaAdrenal CortexAdrenal Medulla secretes the hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine(closely related to the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system).
19 Adrenal (11.10/12) The Adrenal Cortex secretes steroid hormones: Aldosterone -MineralocorticoidsCortisol - GlucocorticoidsAldosterone:Works to regulate the concentration of minerals in the blood.Conserve sodium and excretes potassiumCortisol:Works to regulate glucose levels in the blood.Released in response to stress or injury.
20 Ovaries (11.10/12)Located in the abdominal cavity adjacent to the uterus.Controlled by the LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary gland.When these hormones reach the ovary, two new hormones may be stimulated.EstrogenProgesterone
21 Ovaries (11.10/12)EstrogenIncreases during the early menstrual cycle.Essential for secondary sex characteristics that appear at puberty.ProgesteroneIncreases during ovulation (middle of menstrual cycle)Essential for preparing the uterus for implantation of the egg.*Other organs also produce these hormones in very small amounts – thus, men have these hormones also
22 Testis (11.10/12)Located in the scrotum Also controlled by the LH and FSH hormones from the pituitary gland.When these hormones reach the testis, a new hormone is stimulated.TestosteroneEssential in sperm productionpromotes male growth and masculinization