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1Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh Water PollutionMarco Bruni, seecon international gmbh
2Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright & DisclaimerCopy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source!CopyrightIncluded in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open-source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations.To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that:You are free to:Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document.Under the following conditions:Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using.DisclaimerThe contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations.Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.
3ContentsIntroductionWhat is Water PollutionWastewater’s Impact on Water PollutionReducing Water Pollution through Wastewater Recycling and through efficient Wastewater ManagementFurther Causes of global Water PollutionResponses to Water PollutionReferences
4Water – Essential for Life 1. IntroductionWater – Essential for LifeWater is essential for all aspects of life and the defining feature of our planet.Pollution from agricultural, industrial and domestic wastewater is making water resources, both surface water and groundwater, increasingly scarce and decreasingly poor in quality. (DOPP n.y.)In some regions of the world, rivers and seas have become polluted in a way that the ecosystems and the health of plants, animals, and humans are heavily threatened. The Global Water CrisisSource: [Accessed: ]
5The Global Water Crisis 1. IntroductionThe Global Water CrisisDriversPopulation growthUrbanisationIndustrialisationIncreasing and expanding food production}Pressure on water resourcesIncrease of the unregulated or illegal discharge of contaminated water within and beyond national borders(CORCORAN et al. 2010)
6Just because you can’t see it doesn’t mean it isn’t there 1. IntroductionJust because you can’t see it doesn’t mean it isn’t thereSource: [Accessed: ]
7Definition and Sources 2. What is Water Pollution?Definition and SourcesWater pollution occurs when materials likeNutrients (Phosphorus, Nitrogen, etc.)Organic matter (Carbon)Acids, Toxics, OilPlasticsEtc.are released in to the natural environment, degrading the quality of the water for other users. Water pollution includes all of the waste materials that cannot be naturally broken down by water.Pollution can be caused by nature itself, such as when water flows through soils with high acidities. But much more often, human actions are responsible for the pollutants that enter the water.Main source of water pollution: Wastewater!
8Facts about Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment 3. Wastewater’s Impact on Water PollutionFacts about Wastewater and Wastewater TreatmentEvery day, 2 million tons of sewage, industrial and agricultural waste are released into the world’s water system. (PACIFIC INSTITUTE 2010)Up to 90% of the world’s wastewater (domestic, industrial and agricultural) in coastal zones is released untreated (CORCORAN et al. 2010)Source: CORCORAN et al. (2010)
9Consequences of Water Pollution due to Wastewater 3. Wastewater’s Impact on Water PollutionConsequences of Water Pollution due to WastewaterDecrease of biodiversity, natural resilience and the capacity of the planet to provide ecosystem services.Severe health issues for local populationThreat of access to safe drinking waterPollution of coastal ecosystems and hence diminishing yields of fisheries
103. Wastewater’s Impact on Water Pollution Further ImplicationsContaminated water due to inadequate wastewater managementis one of the main restrictions to development.increases poverty due to high resulting costs for health careSource: CORCORAN et al. (2010)
11Through efficient Wastewater Management 4. Reducing Water PollutionThrough efficient Wastewater ManagementToday, most infrastructure regarding sanitation lacks of adequate maintenance and is, hence, in a poor condition.Instead of the construction of conventional wastewater treatment facilities, a smart and innovative wastewater management can improve the livelihood of people in developing countries substantially and in a sustainable way.Thinking in cycles rather than in linear processes ‘Cradle to Cradle’Source: [Accessed: ]
12An Example of a Wastewater Management Intrument: Recycling 4. Reducing Water PollutionAn Example of a Wastewater Management Intrument: RecyclingFor many purposes, water can be reused rather than ‘disposed’Example: Wastewater reuse in agricultural productionThe use of contaminated water in agriculture for irrigation and fertilising purposes can be managed through the implementation of various barriers which reduce the risk to both crop viability and human health.Particularly in arid and semiarid regions and urban areas where unpolluted water is a scarce resource, irrigation using wastewater is rather common: 10% of the world’s population relies on food grown with contaminated waste water. (CORCORAN et al. 2010)Advantages:Alternative fertiliser for food production. Improvement of livelihood.Reduction of water pollution
13Water Pollution is mainly but not only about Wastewater 5. Further Causes of global Water PollutionWater Pollution is mainly but not only about WastewaterBesides wastewater, many other factors contribute to the global water pollution:Industrial wasteMarine dumpingOil pollutionRadioactive wasteUnderground storage leakagesGlobal WarmingAtmospheric depositionEutrophication
145. Further Causes of global Water Pollution Industrial wasteMarine dumpingSource: [Accessed: ]Source: [Accessed: ]Oil spillEutrophicationSource: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Hj5-4y4gHVw/S9cRJ9Fsz3I/AAAAAAAAIjM/IHM42S3Bo_w/s1600/IXTOC_I_oil_well_blowout_2.jpg [Accessed: ]Source: http://sites.duke.edu/biology217_01_s2011_mkg14/files/2011/04/croaker_bloom1.jpg [Accessed: ]
156. Responses to Water Pollution StrategiesEffective wastewater management can include:Technical measures, Legal instruments, Economic instruments and Co-operation among stakeholders from different sectors and levelsParadigm shiftSingle sector approaches such as wastewater treatment or river basin management are limited in their actions. To save and recycle water, regain resources and to protect aquatic ecosystems, the whole water cycle needs to be taken into account in an integrated, holistic way.Successful and sustainable management of wastewater requires a cocktail of innovative approaches that engage the public and private sector at local, national and transboundary scales.Planning processes should provide an enabling environment for innovation, particularly at the community level.
16Integrated, holistic Approach 6. Responses to Water PollutionIntegrated, holistic ApproachConsider wastewater as a resource!
177. ReferencesCORCORAN, E. (Editor); NELLEMANN, C. (Editor); BAKER, E. (Editor); BOS, R. (Editor); OSBORN, D. (Editor); SAVELLI, H. (Editor) (2010): Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN-HABITAT, GRID-Arendal. [Accessed: ].DOPP (Editor) (n.y.): TED Analysis Cases. Sea Water Pollution - Cases Analysis. Washington: American University. [Accessed: ].PACIFIC INSTITUTE (Editor) (2010): World Water Quality Facts And Statistics. Oakland: Pacific Institute. [Accessed: ].
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