Presentation on theme: "Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here The Global Programme of Action Preventing the degradation of the marine environment from land based activities."— Presentation transcript:
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here The Global Programme of Action Preventing the degradation of the marine environment from land based activities + physical alteration and destruction of habitats. Links freshwater, coastal and marine environments. Global + regional + national approach. Non-binding agreement, adopted in 1995 by 108 States and the European Commission.
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here 80% of all marine pollution comes from land-based activities! The Need for the GPA
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Why Focus on Marine and Coastal Areas? The sustainable use of coastal and ocean resources is linked to public health, food security, and economic and social benefits, including cultural values and traditional livelihoods.
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Why Focus on Marine and Coastal Areas? Nearly half of the global population resides in coastal areas 2/3 rd of the worlds cities are coastal Goods and services provided by marine coastal ecosystems are worth US $ 13 trillion per annum, which equals to half of the annual global GDP
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Contribution of Coastal Resources in Global GDP
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here The Core of the GPA GPA is a source of conceptual and practical guidance, specifies action required at national level, and advocates regional and international cooperation, recommends approaches by source category: Sewage Heavy Metals Litter Nutrients POPs Sediment mobilisation Radioactive Oils Physical alteration & substances (hydrocarbons) destruction of habitats
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here GPA Programmes National Programmes of Action (NPA) Strategic Action Plan on Municipal Wastewater (SAP) Physical Alterations and Destruction of Habitats (PADH) Integrated Coastal Area and River Basin Management (ICARM) Innovative Financing Overall Focus: from Planning to Action Overall Focus: from Planning to Action
Implementation through NPAs and the UNEP Regional Seas Programme: 18 Regional Seas, covering 140 countries +++ binding conventions +++
Second Intergovernmental Review of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Sources of Pollution Beijing, October 2006
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Reporting to IGR-2 The State of the Coastal & Marine Environment Trends and Processes A global analysis describing progress in addressing the GPA source categories, based on a number of regional workshops, D S P I R using existing global assessments, like GESAMP, GEO, GIWA, WWDR, GMA, etc., also regional/national reports and literature
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Observations domestic wastewater discharges nutrients - scattered data - no consistent monitoring networks at regional level - no adequate time series - many project level initiatives, often having diverging objectives and/or indicators - monitoring as part of a management cyclus various scales in space and time, aggregation levels - not all data are acknowledged by national government Need for harmonisation !
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Information needs MWW <> GPA - Sewage is a primary source category polluting coastal waters as listed in the GPA & as identified by most Regional Seas - Various Regional Seas have protocols addressing MWW, and need to report accordingly - MWW is regarded a dimension of MDG - target 10 on W&S, and is being reported in the JMP on W&S However -Connection & treatment are often reported as national data, not RS -RS focal point & ministries are often not the same as those for W&S -Difficult to disaggregate nationally reported data, both for coastal regions and river basins -Alternative technologies often not included (e.g. ecological sanitation)
Wastewater in UNEP/Regional Seas
Collection, treatment, re-use and re-allocation to the environment are important aspects to consider Addressing Water and Sanitation is not restricted to taps and toilets
Improved Sanitation: Status in % coverage, 2.6 bn people without access Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: Mid-term Assessment of Progress WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2004
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Information needs Sewage-Nutrients - Discharges of untreated sewage are supposed to affect Human Health, Biodiversity & Ecosystem functioning, economic Sectors e.g. fisheries, tourism,… in coastal waters & oceans > assessments of impacts attributable to sewage > economic valuation of goods & services - Growing awareness of importance of nutrients (incl. sewage, agriculture, sediments, dust, natural run off, atmospheric dep.) > regional differentiation in management approaches > no global policy mechanism addressing nutrients -There are extensive reporting mechanisms on nutrients (N,P), Mainly load based data, based on national emissions per sector, pathway modeling, and, to a lesser extent coupled with water quality models
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Information needs Sewage-Nutrients However: -Such data are of poor quality in many developing countries if they at all exist -Emission reduction scenarios are often in-country oriented, sometimes river basin oriented, but often not taking into account: trans-boundary cumulative effects, coastal regions characteristics (100 km, <50 m) aggregating at the level of regional seas - Example Baltic Sea ecologically limiting factors - P/N ratios, and Si; Fe resilience, nutrient scarce systems
Insert Page Title here Insert Page Content Here Visit the new UNEP/GPA Coordination Office Website