Standards 1 Stefanie Keller, seecon international
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Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Contents 1.Concept 2.How it can optimize SSWM 3.Design Principles 4.Things to consider before Applying Standards 5.Applicability 6.Advantages and Disadvantages 7.References 3
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 4 Where do Standards belong to? Standards are command and control tools that belong to the software implementation tools in Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management 1.Concept
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info …are direct regulations of requirements, bans and rules. With command and control tools, you only change the behaviour of people because they want to avoid penalties for non-compliance. 1. Concept Tools: Prohibitions Restrictions Permits Standards Etc. Source: http://themoderatevoice.com/wordpress- engine/files/2008_july/Stop_Sign.jpg [Accessed: 23.03.2010] 5 Command and Control Tools…
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 6 Standards A standard is an established norm or requirement. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform criteria, methods, processes and practices. Water standards are normally imposed to unify quality, discharge or environment criteria, related to polluters. 1. Concept Source: http://www.aquaattackdrilling.com.au/images/running_water.jpg [Accessed: 08.06.2010]
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 7 Types of Standards 1. Concept Environmental quality standards: Define the allowable average concentrations over a specific time period for a given pollutant in a particular region Product standards: Define the quality of a product; the admissible concentration of certain substances that has to be met by any product produced and/or sold on the market Emission standards: Determine the maximum allowable rate of pollution output for each generic type of pollutant to protect the designated uses
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 8 Example: Water Quality Standards Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is most frequently used with reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. Standards are related to drinking water, safety of human contact and for health of ecosystems. 1. Concept Source: http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/drinking/dwstandards.h tml [Accessed: 08.06.2010] An understanding of the various factors influencing water quality is thus very important as human health is largely dependant on the quality of water.
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 9 2. How it can optimize SSWM Standards contribute to easier management, better use and increased longevity of the SSWM system. You can use standards to be very clear about what you need to achieve. They look at what needs to be done, but they do not say how to do it. Check and compare the water quality to the WHO standards. Untreated wastewater in Guinea. Source: http://www.worstpolluted.org/files/FileUpload/pics/2008-Individual-Page- Images/sewage,%20surface%20water_Guinea.JPG [Accessed: 24.09.2010]
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 10 2. How it can optimize SSWM Swiss chemical industry in 1900: No environmental quality standards, high degree of pollution. Source: http://www.brainworker.ch/Martin- Herzog/Basel/geschichte/basler_chemie.htm [Accessed: 08.06.2010] A permit is the act of giving a formal, usually written, authorization. (e.g. a permit to operate a wastewater treatment plant) Standards are the base to create permits, because they set the requirements of an environmental regulation. Permits contribute to SSWM local level by setting allowable pollutant levels (standards) for individual water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, streams and wetlands. Standards as a base for Permits
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Check if there are national guidelines which facilitate a general understanding of quality standards and how to apply them, together with international WHO guidelines. The numerical values assigned to the standards have to be established based on scientific foundation and ensure appropriate levels of use safety. It is essential that standards are established in a flexible and decentralized form, to be able to serve local specificities. Surveillance and quality control are necessary, but are best performed by separate and independent entities because of the conflict of interest that arises when the two are combined. 11 3. Design Principles
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Standards may be developed by individual corporations, regulatory bodies or by groups such as trade unions or trade associations. Standards might become mandatory if adopted by the authorities. A motivation to implement a water quality management system is the possibility to choose, forms of harmonious companionship between the two main target groups: the ones polluting the water bodies and water users. 12 3. Design Principles Main Implementation Actors and Target Groups Industries are heavy water body polluters. Source: http://www.grida.no/_res/site/file/publications/sickwater/SickWater_screen.pdf [Accessed: 24.09.2010]
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 4. Things to consider before Applying Standards 13 Source: http://www.grand-rapids.mi.us/index.pl?page_id=1511 [Accessed: 08.06.2010] To establish licences to discharge environmentally incompatible substances at the regional level, the following parameters should be stipulated: Maximum concentration of the substance permissible in the discharge Average concentration permissible in the discharge during a period Maximum quantity permissible discharge during a period Internal control measures
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 14 5. Applicability Source: http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/thisweekineducation/2007/06/ national_yawn_standards_again.html [Accessed: 08.06.2010] The development of standards is a complex process. It is not necessary to develop our own standards, but to choose the right standards from the right sources and adapt them to each local situation. All costs should be taken into account explicitly in setting standards, if not standards will louse in efficiency Standards should be used in combination with other measures.
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 15 6. Advantages and disadvantages Disadvantages: Standards can be too ambitious, this arises costs but not quality Developing standards is complex scientifically and legally If there is not sufficient money, often control is simply neglected If low levels of control or weaknesses of State, economic instruments should be applied complementary Advantages: Economic equity, same standards of treatment for all polluters No extensive set of data on the based water system, which may reduce the costs of monitoring and studies It complements with other tools, for example economic instruments It can increase efficiency and lower costs
Standards Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 16 7. References MILIJOSTYRELSEN (2000): Guidelines to Statutory Order on the Licensing of Waste Water Discharges. Environmental Guidelines. Copenhagen: Miljo-og Energiministeriet. URL: http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2000/87-7944-264-1/pdf/87-7944-266-8.pdf [Accessed: 27.04.2010] INDIA WATERPORTAL (2010): Water Quality Channel. Pune: India Water Portal URL: http://www.indiawaterportal.org/channels/water-quality [Accessed: 8.04.2010] PORTO, M.; LOBATO, F. (2004): Mechanisms of Water Management: Command & Control and Social Mechanisms (Part 1 of 2). In: REGA (Revista de Gestão de Água da América Latina) 1 (2), 113-129.
Standards 17 Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture SSWM is an initiative supported by: Compiled by: