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Standards 1 Stefanie Keller, seecon international.

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1 Standards 1 Stefanie Keller, seecon international

2 Standards Find this presentation and more on: Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open-source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that: You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided. Copyright & Disclaimer

3 Standards Find this presentation and more on: Contents 1.Concept 2.How it can optimize SSWM 3.Design Principles 4.Things to consider before Applying Standards 5.Applicability 6.Advantages and Disadvantages 7.References 3

4 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 4 Where do Standards belong to? Standards are command and control tools that belong to the software implementation tools in Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management 1.Concept

5 Standards Find this presentation and more on: …are direct regulations of requirements, bans and rules. With command and control tools, you only change the behaviour of people because they want to avoid penalties for non-compliance. 1. Concept Tools: Prohibitions Restrictions Permits Standards Etc. Source: engine/files/2008_july/Stop_Sign.jpg [Accessed: 23.03.2010] 5 Command and Control Tools…

6 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 6 Standards A standard is an established norm or requirement. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform criteria, methods, processes and practices. Water standards are normally imposed to unify quality, discharge or environment criteria, related to polluters. 1. Concept Source: [Accessed: 08.06.2010]

7 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 7 Types of Standards 1. Concept Environmental quality standards: Define the allowable average concentrations over a specific time period for a given pollutant in a particular region Product standards: Define the quality of a product; the admissible concentration of certain substances that has to be met by any product produced and/or sold on the market Emission standards: Determine the maximum allowable rate of pollution output for each generic type of pollutant to protect the designated uses

8 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 8 Example: Water Quality Standards Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is most frequently used with reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. Standards are related to drinking water, safety of human contact and for health of ecosystems. 1. Concept Source: tml [Accessed: 08.06.2010] An understanding of the various factors influencing water quality is thus very important as human health is largely dependant on the quality of water.

9 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 9 2. How it can optimize SSWM Standards contribute to easier management, better use and increased longevity of the SSWM system. You can use standards to be very clear about what you need to achieve. They look at what needs to be done, but they do not say how to do it. Check and compare the water quality to the WHO standards. Untreated wastewater in Guinea. Source: Images/sewage,%20surface%20water_Guinea.JPG [Accessed: 24.09.2010]

10 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 10 2. How it can optimize SSWM Swiss chemical industry in 1900: No environmental quality standards, high degree of pollution. Source: Herzog/Basel/geschichte/basler_chemie.htm [Accessed: 08.06.2010] A permit is the act of giving a formal, usually written, authorization. (e.g. a permit to operate a wastewater treatment plant) Standards are the base to create permits, because they set the requirements of an environmental regulation. Permits contribute to SSWM local level by setting allowable pollutant levels (standards) for individual water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, streams and wetlands. Standards as a base for Permits

11 Standards Find this presentation and more on: Check if there are national guidelines which facilitate a general understanding of quality standards and how to apply them, together with international WHO guidelines. The numerical values assigned to the standards have to be established based on scientific foundation and ensure appropriate levels of use safety. It is essential that standards are established in a flexible and decentralized form, to be able to serve local specificities. Surveillance and quality control are necessary, but are best performed by separate and independent entities because of the conflict of interest that arises when the two are combined. 11 3. Design Principles

12 Standards Find this presentation and more on: Standards may be developed by individual corporations, regulatory bodies or by groups such as trade unions or trade associations. Standards might become mandatory if adopted by the authorities. A motivation to implement a water quality management system is the possibility to choose, forms of harmonious companionship between the two main target groups: the ones polluting the water bodies and water users. 12 3. Design Principles Main Implementation Actors and Target Groups Industries are heavy water body polluters. Source: [Accessed: 24.09.2010]

13 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 4. Things to consider before Applying Standards 13 Source: [Accessed: 08.06.2010] To establish licences to discharge environmentally incompatible substances at the regional level, the following parameters should be stipulated: Maximum concentration of the substance permissible in the discharge Average concentration permissible in the discharge during a period Maximum quantity permissible discharge during a period Internal control measures

14 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 14 5. Applicability Source: national_yawn_standards_again.html [Accessed: 08.06.2010] The development of standards is a complex process. It is not necessary to develop our own standards, but to choose the right standards from the right sources and adapt them to each local situation. All costs should be taken into account explicitly in setting standards, if not standards will louse in efficiency Standards should be used in combination with other measures.

15 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 15 6. Advantages and disadvantages Disadvantages: Standards can be too ambitious, this arises costs but not quality Developing standards is complex scientifically and legally If there is not sufficient money, often control is simply neglected If low levels of control or weaknesses of State, economic instruments should be applied complementary Advantages: Economic equity, same standards of treatment for all polluters No extensive set of data on the based water system, which may reduce the costs of monitoring and studies It complements with other tools, for example economic instruments It can increase efficiency and lower costs

16 Standards Find this presentation and more on: 16 7. References MILIJOSTYRELSEN (2000): Guidelines to Statutory Order on the Licensing of Waste Water Discharges. Environmental Guidelines. Copenhagen: Miljo-og Energiministeriet. URL: [Accessed: 27.04.2010] INDIA WATERPORTAL (2010): Water Quality Channel. Pune: India Water Portal URL: [Accessed: 8.04.2010] PORTO, M.; LOBATO, F. (2004): Mechanisms of Water Management: Command & Control and Social Mechanisms (Part 1 of 2). In: REGA (Revista de Gestão de Água da América Latina) 1 (2), 113-129.

17 Standards 17 Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture SSWM is an initiative supported by: Compiled by:

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