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Sports Psychology. Athletes Reaction to Injury Treatment of injury requires attending both physical and psychological needs Athletes depend on the ability.

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Presentation on theme: "Sports Psychology. Athletes Reaction to Injury Treatment of injury requires attending both physical and psychological needs Athletes depend on the ability."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sports Psychology

2 Athletes Reaction to Injury Treatment of injury requires attending both physical and psychological needs Athletes depend on the ability of their bodies to perform at optimal levels Performance can be the cornerstone of social and economic success Performance is important to self esteem An injury is any physical challenge that interferes with performance

3 Psychological Reactions Reactions depend on: Athletes perceptive of the injuries severity How injury interferes with peak performance Athlete themselves- reactions vary considerably from athlete to athlete Emotional reactions are caused by: Pain associated with tissue damage Amount of attention focused on injury

4 Psychological Components All physical injuries have a psychological responses Responses may include: Anxiety about the loss of motor skills and participation Anxiety about treatment Anxiety about rehabilitation Anxiety about their return to play

5 Psychological Phases 5 phases have been identified which individuals progress through when confronted with grief or loss Phases can occur in different sequences Phases can occur with varying degrees of intensity In some cases one or more phases may be omitted These reactions are normal and athlete must be allowed to fully experience each

6 Five Psychological Phases Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance

7 Denial Phase After a sudden injury the athlete will commonly deny the seriousness of the condition Nothing is really wrong Irrational thinking indicates denial of the true seriousness of the injury Athlete needs to reshape their perception of the injury Either the athlete will change perception and leave denial phase or seek second and third opinions- prolonging the phase

8 Anger Phase Once athlete can no longer deny an injury they often become angry Anger is toward themselves, those around them, and everything in general Challenging anger only makes it worse Why me What did I do wrong Why am I being punished Its not fair Athlete may lose interest in rehabilitation

9 Special Considerations Athletes who deny pain or loss of function Ignore pain signals or deny loss of function from injury Tolerate high levels of pain Apparently believe it is to their advantage not to acknowledge discomfort Watch athletes carefully to try to detect signs of injury Pay close attention to those athletes who have hidden injuries in the past

10 Special Considerations Athletes who view injury as a source of relief Consider injuries a source of relief rather than a threat Competition is not only a opportunity to triumph, but also to fail Injury can provide a socially acceptable reason to avoid the pressure to succeed Discuss athletes perception of situation and reaction to pressure may be helpful Athlete may need help learning to perceive the competitive situation as less a threat and more of an opportunity

11 Intervention Skills Communication Encourage cooperation Goal Setting Maintaining Team Associations Relaxation Skills Visual Imagery Positive Self-Talk

12 Communication Be honest and complete with the athlete about needs, expectations and progress Evaluate often Do not neglect their emotional responses by trying to cheer them up or ignoring their feelings Anxious feelings are normal and should receive support as they work through them

13 Encourage Cooperation Building cooperation and patience with athletes is essential for success rehab Remember athletes are the ones who must dedicate the time, effort and endure the pain Give clear explanations Outline procedures used in the treatment Make responsible predictions of athletes prognosis and return to competition to improve cooperation

14 Goal Setting Is critical to establish a program that will be motivational and achieve success Measure progress daily Break programs into small sub goals so that improvement is more visible Set both short and long term goals Include positive language about what will be achieved, specifically what must be done, and time frame Build rewards into reaching goals

15 Maintain Team Association Athletes social status and rewards often dramatically decrease with an injury Friendships based on team membership become threatened Team Association keeps injured athletes motivation to return from fading Must keep involved with team Light workouts Assist with coaching or managerial tasks

16 Relaxation Skills Promote healing Increase blood flow Help work through pain 3 techniques Focused relaxed breathing Progressive muscle relaxation Meditation

17 Focused, relaxed breathing Lessen pain Reduce muscular resistance in range of motion movements

18 Progressive Muscle Relaxation Most extensively used technique for relaxation today Can be practiced in a reclining position or while seated in a chair Each muscle group in tensed from 5-7 seconds, then relaxed for seconds One repetition of the procedure is sufficient If tension remains in the area- repeat in that area

19 Progressive Muscle Relaxation The sequence of tensing and releasing is systematically applied to the body Starting hands-arms-head-chest-lower body Throughout the session a number of expressions for relaxing may be used Let the tension dissolve Let go on the tension

20 Progressive Muscle Relaxation After the athlete has become highly aware of the tension in the body the contraction is gradually decreased until little remains The athlete focuses on one area and mentally wills the tension to decrease to zero or complete relaxation A short progressive program can be developed- not as satisfactory, does help the person to become aware of the body

21 Meditation Technique used in culture dating back nearly 3000 years Many consider meditation to be an attitude rather than a process Not only relaxation, but individuals capacity for focused attention Can reduce mental anxiety, muscular tension, and create a climate for increased productivity

22 Meditation Effects of Meditation Use up to 18% less oxygen Produce less carbon dioxide Slower respiratory rate Decreased resting heart rate Decreased blood pressure Brain waves that are associated with the relaxed mental state increase

23 Meditation Techniques Focus on a constant mental stimulus such as: A phrase repeated silently or audibly, A sound or a single word Perhaps a gaze steadily at some object Turn away thoughts as they come into consciousness and return to focus of attention

24 Meditation Techniques Position in a comfortable position Normally, the eyes are closed unless the meditator is focused on some external object A quiet environment is essential Once fully physically relaxed, the process can begin

25 Meditation Techniques With each exhalation the athlete emits self-talk of a short word Word is repeated over and over for minutes Words such as peace, relaxed or one are excellent After repeating the word, athlete comes back to physical reality slowly and gently As awareness increases, physical activity should also increase Moving too quickly or standing up suddenly may produce light headedness or dizziness

26 Visual Imagery The imagination can greatly influence their response to an injury Athletes can be taught to control: Visual images to direct tem productively Reduce anxiety Aid in rehabilitation and healing Athletes should imagine the healing in the tissues and actually breath air out through the injured area

27 Visual Imagery Athletes should mentally practice returning to activity and the feeling of being healed and regaining full movement It is not unusual for athletes to have flashbacks to the original injury movement Reassure that this is normal and that they should replace that image with one of what it will be like to return to action

28 Positive Self-Talk Helpful in moving through the grieving process and focusing on recovery Use affirming self statements and have athletes verbally encourage and reward themselves for their efforts and progress

29 Overtraining, Staleness and Burnout Stress refers to a change Stress is not all bad, nor is it all good Sports participation serves as a stressor Training too hard and too long without proper rest is overtraining Athletes who undergo overtraining can become stale and burnt out

30 Overtraining Signs Coaches, therapeutic staff, and athletes should be aware of the following: Changes in an athletes physical output Changes in an athletes motivation level Psychosomatic complaints and decrease in intensity Changes in the practice climate of the team- increased small overuse injuries

31 Staleness Loss of vigor, initiative, and successful performance Attributed to a variety of influences Long seasons or extended seasons Monotony in practice and program structure Abusiveness-verbal and physical or controlling High and constant levels of stress Poor eating habits

32 Staleness Staleness may be the beginning of burnout Often a result of overtraining Athletes are more prone to staleness if rewards of their efforts are minimal, like a losing season

33 Symptoms to Staleness Decrease in performance Chronic fatigue Apathy Loss of appetite Indigestion Weight loss High BP/Pulse at rest and at exercise Inability to sleep Irritability and restlessness Anxiety and depression Has to force self to practice Signs of boredom Difficulty concentrating

34 Prevent Staleness Time off- breaks in routine Allow athletes to have more input and control of decisions that affect them Decrease emotional and stressful demands Provide a supportive and caring environment Sufficient attention to complaints and small injuries Intervention skills- goal setting, relaxation, mental practices, positive self talk

35 Burnout State of physical, mental and emotional environment Ability to cope with minor daily frustrations decreases and ability to cope with major problems are paralyzed Loss of motivation and interest Can become extremely dangerous in terms of injuries and devastating in terms of performance

36 Symptoms of Burnout Exhaustion Depression Emotional detachment Psychosomatic complaints Paranoia

37 Treatment for Burnout Takes more drastic steps than staleness Should be evaluated by a sports psychologist or clinical counselor Removal from activity and environment Psychological counseling

38 The End Any questions???

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