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Chapter 7 Covert Behavioral Methods for Changing Respondent Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Covert Behavioral Methods for Changing Respondent Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Covert Behavioral Methods for Changing Respondent Behavior

2 Relaxation relaxation is a state of reduced physiological arousal relaxation may make one more alert relaxation requires some training

3 Relaxation Training can be used independently to reduce fears and other anxiety-based disorders can be used in conjunction with procedures like systematic desensitization should follow a routine schedule should be conducted in a comfortable setting should be viewed as practice should be faded

4 Relaxation Techniques: Progressive Muscle Relaxation progressive muscle relaxation requires the individual to systematically tense and relax the major muscle groups of the body first described by Jacobson (1938); subsequently revised training may have long-term positive effects training requires attention to feelings of tension and relaxation

5 Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training instruct the individual to sit in a comfortable position with eyes closed identify a muscle group and instruct the individual to tense those muscles instruct individual to attend to feelings associated with tension instruct individual to relax those muscles

6 Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training (continued) instruct individual to attend to the relaxed feelings in those muscles repeat for other muscle groups instruct individual to attend to relaxing thoughts and feelings

7 Relaxation Techniques: Autogenic Training autogenic training requires the individual to imagine relaxing situations and feelings first defined by Shultz (1957) relatively time-consuming (shorter versions may be as effective) may be preferred over progressive relaxation when medical conditions preclude tensing muscles

8 Autogenic Training Procedures encourage adoption of a relaxed attitude instruct individual to focus on different parts of the body attribute relaxing feelings to those parts using themes such as warmth allow changes to evolve naturally encourage individual to identify and focus on a personally calming scene

9 Relaxation Techniques: Mediation meditation involves a focusing of attention or contemplation meditation procedures may take various forms training also may help focusing of thought training also may serve to detach individual from emotion or pain

10 Meditation Procedures encourage individual to focus attention thoughts are often directed at a meditation stimulus –a simple visual pattern or object can be viewed in a nonanalytical way –an auditory mantra can be chanted –the process of breathing can serve as the focus instruct individual gently to refocus when attention wanders

11 Relaxation Techniques: Rapid Relaxation Induction teach relaxation methods that allow for rapid relaxation as supplements to the standard techniques may be a shortened version of a standard technique does not replace standard techniques does not induce as deep a state of relaxation as other techniques

12 Relaxation Techniques: Rapid Relaxation Induction (continued) must be mastered must be used in anticipation of stress or fear

13 Enhancing Rapid Relaxation use verbal cues like "relax" or meditative mantras paying attention to breathing imagining calm scenes of settings where relaxed feelings have occurred

14 Covert Conditioning covert conditioning involves imagined associations that allow for learning without overt experience attributed to Cautela (1966) procedures may not be as effective as overt counterparts procedures may be used when it is difficult or dangerous to use overt procedures

15 Covert Conditioning Procedures covert sensitization creates an aversion through imagination covert positive reinforcement overcomes phobias by associating fear with pleasant experiences other covert procedures include: –imagined models –extinction –punishment –covert use of other behavioral treatments

16 Cognitive-Behavioral Coping Techniques positive and negative self-statements are things we say about our perceived abilities and outcomes of our behavior coping statements are things we say that characterize how well we think we will tolerate what we see as an unpleasant situation

17 Cognitive-Behavioral Coping Techniques (continued) coping statement interventions train individuals to use positive statements reinterpretative statements offer arguments why a situation may be less unpleasant reinterpretative statements work only if they are believable

18 Thought Stopping thought stopping procedures require the individual to interrupt or eliminate unwanted antecedent thoughts typically, the word stop is asserted either overtly or covertly when the individual becomes aware of a targeted unwanted thought thought stopping has been used with thoughts associated with loss and depression

19 Thought Stopping (continued) thought stopping has been used with antecedents to unwanted habits evidence on the effectiveness of thought stopping is equivocal

20 Distraction distraction procedures encourage a shift in attention from an unpleasant stimulus to a pleasant or neutral stimulus distraction works best with mild stress

21 Tips on Using Covert Behavioral Methods prefer in vivo stimuli avoid relaxation training that might cause discomfort prescribe a schedule for relaxation training to minimize skipped sessions use relaxation tapes when possible prefer relaxation environments that are quiet and dimly lit

22 Tips on Using Covert Behavioral Methods (continued) if your mind drifts from the relaxation task, simply refocus use rapid relaxation only after mastering standard techniques assess state of relaxation to determine how fast to progress through relaxation training

23 Tips on Using Covert Behavioral Methods (continued) avoid relaxing scenes that are emotionally laden seek clear visual scenes when using imaginal approaches select reasonable and believable positive self- statements

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