Presentation on theme: "1 Psychological Factors in Athletic Injuries Some 3 to 5 million people are injured each year in sport and exercise. Physical factors are the primary causes."— Presentation transcript:
1 Psychological Factors in Athletic Injuries Some 3 to 5 million people are injured each year in sport and exercise. Physical factors are the primary causes of injury, but psychological factors can also contribute.
2 How Injuries Happen Psychological Antecedents To date, personality factors associated with athlete injuries have not been successfully identified. Personality factors People with high levels of life stress have more sport- and exercise-related injuries. Stress levels
3 Stress–Athletic Injury Model
4 How Injuries Happen The greatest stress sources for injured athletes were not the physical aspects but the psychological ones (e.g., “fear” of reinjury, shattered hopes or dreams). Teaching stress management can reduce risk of injury. The stress-injury relationship is complex.
5 Explaining the Stress–Injury Relationship Stress disrupts an athlete’s attention by reducing peripheral attention and causing distraction and task-irrelevant thoughts. Attentional disruption High stress can cause muscle tension and coordination interference. Increased muscle tension
6 Overemphasis on acting tough and a giving- 110% attitude Other stress-injury relationship explanations: Failure to distinguish between normal discomfort and injury pain “You’re injured” or “you’re worthless” attitude
7 Psychological Reactions to Exercise and Athletic Injuries Injury-relevant information processing 1. Emotional upheaval and reactive behaviors 2. Positive outlook, coping 3. Three general categories of emotional reactions to being injured:
8 Psychological Reactions to Exercise and Athletic Injuries Most people experience a typical response to injury, but the speed and ease with which they progress through stages can vary widely. Key:
9 Other Injury Reactions Identity Loss When athletes can no longer participate because of an injury, they may experience a loss of personal identity. That is, an important part of themselves is lost, seriously affecting self- concept.
10 Other Injury Reactions Fear and Anxiety When injured, athletes can experience high levels of fear and anxiety. They worry whether they will recover, if re- injury will occur, and whether someone will replace them permanently in the lineup. Because the athlete cannot practice and compete there’s plenty of time for worry.
11 Other Injury Reactions Lack of Confidence Given the inability to practice and compete and deteriorated physical status, athletes can lose confidence after an injury. Lowered confidence can result in decreased motivation, inferior performance, or additional injury because the athlete overcompensates.
12 Other Injury Reactions Because of the lowered confidence and missed practice time, athletes may suffer post-injury performance declines. Many athletes who have difficulty lowering expectations after an injury expect to return to a pre-injury level of performance.
13 Signs of Poor Adjustment to Athletic Injuries Feelings of anger and confusion Obsession with the question of when one can return to play Denial (e.g., “The injury is no big deal.”) Repeatedly coming back too soon and experiencing reinjury Exaggerated bragging about accomplishments
14 Signs of Poor Adjustment to Athletic Injuries Dwelling on minor physical complaints Guilt about letting the team down Withdrawal from significant others Rapid mood swings Statements indicating that no matter what is done, recovery will not occur
15 Role of Sport Psychology in Injury Rehabilitation A holistic approach is needed, emphasizing both the healing of the mind and body. Psychological factors play an important role in injury recovery. Injury treatment should include psychological techniques to enhance the healing and recovery process. Key points:
16 Role of Sport Psychology in Injury Rehabilitation Build rapport with the injured party. Educate the injured person about the injury and recovery process.
17 Role of Sport Psychology in Injury Rehabilitation Discuss goal setting, positive self-talk, imagery, visualization and relaxation training. Teach specific coping skills. Teach how to cope with setbacks. Foster social support.
18 Recommendations for Facilitating Rehabilitation for Coaches Faster coach-athlete contact and involvement. Demonstrate positive empathy and support. Don’t repeatedly mention injury in training.
19 Recommendations for Facilitating Rehabilitation for Sports Medicine Personnel Educate and inform athlete of injury and rehabilitation. Foster positive interaction and customize training. Demonstrate competence, confidence, empathy and support Have supportive personality Encourage athlete’s confidence