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PHYSIOLOGICAL BASICS FOR ATHLETIC TRAINING Olavi Pajala.

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Presentation on theme: "PHYSIOLOGICAL BASICS FOR ATHLETIC TRAINING Olavi Pajala."— Presentation transcript:

1 PHYSIOLOGICAL BASICS FOR ATHLETIC TRAINING Olavi Pajala

2 C H A P T E R 12 TRAINING FOR SPORT

3 Did You Know…? A persons rate of adaptation and response to training depends on that individual. He or she cannot be forced beyond his or her bodys capacity for development. Thus, training programs must take these individual differences into account.

4 OPTIMIZING TRAININGA MODEL

5 PERIODIZED TRAINING, MACROCYCLE

6 PERIODIZED TRAINING, MESOCYCLE

7 PERIODIZED TRAINING, MICROCYCLE

8 Optimal Training Load Progressive overloadprogressive increase in training load as body adapts Training volumeduration and frequency Training intensityforce of muscle action and stress on the muscular and cardiovascular systems Resistance training (high intensity and low volume) Aerobic training (high volume and lower intensity) Rest periodswithout them, muscles become chronically fatigued and depleted of stored energy

9 EXCESSIVE TRAININGBLOOD LACTATE AND HR

10 TRAINING VOLUME vs IMPROVEMENT

11 Key Points Excessive training refers to training with an unnecessarily high volume or intensity. Excessive training does not lead to additional gains in performance and can lead to chronic fatigue and decreased performance. Training Demands Increase the duration or frequency of training to increase training volume. (continued)

12 Key Points Training Demands Training intensity can determine specific adaptations to training. High-intensity, low-volume training increases muscle strength and speed. High-volume, low-intensity training (50% to 90% VO 2 max) increases aerobic capacity..

13 Did You Know…? Long daily workouts may not be the best training method for some sports. It appears that training volume could be reduced by as much as one half in some sports, without reducing the training benefits and with less risk of overtraining the athlete to the point of decreased performance.

14 Effects of Training Too Much Excessive trainingwell above what is needed for peak performance, but does not strictly meet the criteria for overreaching or overtraining. It can lead to chronic fatigue and decrements in performance. Overreachinga brief period of heavy overload without adequate recovery, thus exceeding the athletes adaptive capacity. There is a performance decrement, but it is relatively short-term, lasting several days to several weeks Overtrainingthat point at which an athlete starts to experience physiological maladaptations and chronic performance decrements, lasting weeks, months or longer.

15 Overtraining Continued training beyond the point that would be optimal; can be related to intensity, duration, frequency, or any combination of these three Staleness is a related concept The key is to design a training program that provides the optimal level of stress but does not overstress the athlete

16 Symptoms of Overtraining Syndrome Decline in physical performance with continued training Loss in muscular strength, coordination, and maximal working capacity General fatigue Change in appetite and body weight loss Sleep disturbances Irritable, restless, excitable, anxious Loss of motivation Lack of mental concentration Feelings of depression

17 OVERREACHING vs OVERTRAINING

18 Possible Causes of Overtraining Periods of excessive training and/or emotional stress Abnormal responses in the autonomic nervous system sympathetic and parasympathetic Disturbances in endocrine function Depressed immune function

19 HORMONAL RESPONSES TO OVERTRAINING

20 HYPOTHALAMUS, SAM, and HPA WITH OVERTRAINING

21 BRAIN-IMMUNE SYSTEM INTERACTIONS

22 EXERCISE AND IMMUNE FUNCTION

23 Predicting Overtraining Increase in oxygen consumption for the same rate of work (though impractical for coach to measure) Increased heart rate response to the same rate of work Declines in performance

24 VO 2 IN EARLY AND LATE SEASON.

25 HEART RATE RESPONSES TO TRAINING

26 Treatment of Overtraining Reduce training intensity for several days Rest completely for several days or weeks if symptoms dont improve Seek counseling Prevent overtraining by alternating easy, moderate, and hard training Eat sufficient carbohydrate to prevent glycogen depletion

27 Key Points Overreaching and overtraining lead to decreased performance capacity. Symptoms of overreaching or overtraining may occur briefly with regular training. Overreaching and Overtraining Overtraining may be caused by abnormal responses in the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems and suppressed immune function. Heart rate response appears to be the most reliable warning of overtraining. Overtraining syndrome is treated most effectively with rest and proper nutrition.

28 Did You Know…? Tapering for competition involves a reduction in training intensity and volume. This rest allows your body to repair itself and restore its energy reserves to prepare you for your best performance.

29 Effects of Properly Tapering Muscular strength increases Energy reserves are restored Performance increases No loss of VO 2 max occurs.

30 EFFECTS OF A 7-DAY TAPER IN RUNNERS a b

31 TAPERING AND VO 2 SUBMAX. c

32 Detraining Partial or complete loss of training-induced adaptations in response to either the cessation of training or to a substantial decrement in the training load Loss of muscle size, strength, and power Decrease in muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance Loss of speed, agility, and flexibility

33 Loss of Muscle Strength With Detraining Muscle atrophy accounts for a loss in development of maximal muscle fiber tension. Normal fiber recruitment is disrupted; some fibers are unable to be recruited. Muscle requires minimal stimulation (training once every 10 to 14 days) to retain training gains.

34 BIOKINETIC SWIM BENCH AND STRENGTH CHANGES WITH DETRAINING a b

35 Loss of Muscular Endurance With Detraining Decreased performance may be related to losses in cardiorespiratory endurance. Oxidative enzyme activity in muscles decreases. Glycolytic enzymes remain unchanged with up to 84 days of detraining. Muscle glycogen content (and thus storage capacity) decreases. Acid-base balance becomes disturbed. Muscle capillary supply and fiber type may change.

36 DETRAINING, VO 2 MAX, AND OXIDATIVE ENZYMES.

37 DETRAINING AND MUSCLE GLYCOGEN

38 Blood Lactate, pH, and Bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) in Eight Collegiate Swimmers Undergoing Detraining – Lactate (mmol/L) c pH c HCO 3 (mmol/L) c 16.1 c 16.3 c Swim time (s) Measurement0 a 1 b 24 Weeks of detraining – Note. Measurements were taken immediately after a fixed-pace swim. a The values at week 0 represent the measurements taken at the end of 5 months of training. b The values for weeks 1, 2, and 4 are the results obtained after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of detraining, respectively. c Significant difference from the value at the end of training.

39 Loss of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Losses are greatest in highly trained individuals. Plasma volume decreases Stroke volume decreases Endurance performance decreases VO 2 max decreases.

40 Did You Know…? You can prevent rapid losses to your cardiorespiratory endurance with a minimum of three training sessions per week at an intensity of at least 70% VO 2 max..

41 CHANGES IN VO 2 MAX WITH BED REST.

42 Effects of Detraining and Blood Volume Expansion Blood volume (ml)5,1774,692 b 5,412 Stroke volume (ml/beat) a b 164 VO 2 max (L/min) b 4.28 Exercise time to exhaustion (min) c ParameterTrainedDetrainedDetrained NormalExpanded blood blood volume volume a Stroke volume measured during submaximal exercise. b Denotes a significant difference from the trained (normal blood volume) and detrained (expanded blood volume) values. c Denotes a significant difference from the trained (normal blood volume) value..

43 Retraining Recovery of conditioning after a period of inactivity. Affected by fitness level and the length and extent of inactivity. If a cast allows some range of movement, retraining time can be reduced. Electrical stimulation of muscles can prevent muscle fiber atrophy.

44 Key Points Detraining is the cessation of regular physical training Retraining is resuming training after a period of inactivity. Detraining and Retraining The greater the training gains achieved, the greater the losses with detraining. Detraining results in losses of muscle size, strength, power, and endurance; speed, agility, and flexibility; and cardiorespiratory endurance. Detraining effects can be minimized by training three times a week at 70% VO 2 max..


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