3Did You Know…?A person’s rate of adaptation and response to training depends on that individual. He or she cannot be forced beyond his or her body’s capacity for development. Thus, training programs must take these individual differences into account.
8Optimal Training LoadProgressive overload—progressive increase in training load as body adaptsTraining volume—duration and frequencyTraining intensity—force of muscle action and stress on the muscular and cardiovascular systemsw Resistance training (high intensity and low volume)w Aerobic training (high volume and lower intensity)Rest periods—without them, muscles become chronically fatigued and depleted of stored energy
11Key Points Training Demands (continued) w Excessive training refers to training with an unnecessarily high volume or intensity.w Excessive training does not lead to additional gains in performance and can lead to chronic fatigue and decreased performance.w Increase the duration or frequency of training to increase training volume.(continued)
12Key Points Training Demands . w Training intensity can determine specific adaptations to training.w High-intensity, low-volume training increases muscle strength and speed.w High-volume, low-intensity training (50% to 90% VO2max) increases aerobic capacity..
13Did You Know…?Long daily workouts may not be the best training method for some sports. It appears that training volume could be reduced by as much as one half in some sports, without reducing the training benefits and with less risk of overtraining the athlete to the point of decreased performance.
14Effects of Training Too Much Excessive training—well above what is needed for peak performance, but does not strictly meet the criteria for overreaching or overtraining. It can lead to chronic fatigue and decrements in performance.Overreaching—a brief period of heavy overload without adequate recovery, thus exceeding the athlete’s adaptive capacity. There is a performance decrement, but it is relatively short-term, lasting several days to several weeksOvertraining—that point at which an athlete starts to experience physiological maladaptations and chronic performance decrements, lasting weeks, months or longer.
15Overtrainingw Continued training beyond the point that would be optimal; can be related to intensity, duration, frequency, or any combination of these threew Staleness is a related conceptw The key is to design a training program that provides the optimal level of stress but does not overstress the athlete
16Symptoms of Overtraining Syndrome w Decline in physical performance with continued trainingw Loss in muscular strength, coordination, and maximal working capacityw General fatiguew Change in appetite and body weight lossw Sleep disturbancesw Irritable, restless, excitable, anxiousw Loss of motivationw Lack of mental concentrationw Feelings of depression
18Possible Causes of Overtraining w Periods of excessive training and/or emotional stressw Abnormal responses in the autonomic nervous system—sympathetic and parasympatheticw Disturbances in endocrine functionw Depressed immune function
23Predicting Overtraining w Increase in oxygen consumption for the same rate of work (though impractical for coach to measure)w Increased heart rate response to the same rate of workw Declines in performance
26Treatment of Overtraining w Reduce training intensity for several daysw Rest completely for several days or weeks if symptoms don’t improvew Seek counselingw Prevent overtraining by alternating easy, moderate, and hard trainingw Eat sufficient carbohydrate to prevent glycogen depletion
27Key Points Overreaching and Overtraining w Overreaching and overtraining lead to decreased performance capacity.w Symptoms of overreaching or overtraining may occur briefly with regular training.w Overtraining may be caused by abnormal responses in the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems and suppressed immune function.w Heart rate response appears to be the most reliable warning of overtraining.w Overtraining syndrome is treated most effectively with rest and proper nutrition.
28Did You Know…?Tapering for competition involves a reduction in training intensity and volume. This rest allows your body to repair itself and restore its energy reserves to prepare you for your best performance.
29Effects of Properly Tapering w Muscular strength increasesw Energy reserves are restoredw No loss of VO2max occurs.w Performance increases
32Detrainingw Partial or complete loss of training-induced adaptations in response to either the cessation of training or to a substantial decrement in the training loadw Loss of muscle size, strength, and powerw Decrease in muscular and cardiorespiratory endurancew Loss of speed, agility, and flexibility
33Loss of Muscle Strength With Detraining w Muscle atrophy accounts for a loss in development of maximal muscle fiber tension.w Normal fiber recruitment is disrupted; some fibers are unable to be recruited.w Muscle requires minimal stimulation (training once every 10 to 14 days) to retain training gains.
34BIOKINETIC SWIM BENCH AND STRENGTH CHANGES WITH DETRAINING
35Loss of Muscular Endurance With Detraining w Decreased performance may be related to losses in cardiorespiratory endurance.w Oxidative enzyme activity in muscles decreases.w Glycolytic enzymes remain unchanged with up to 84 days of detraining.w Muscle glycogen content (and thus storage capacity) decreases.w Acid-base balance becomes disturbed.w Muscle capillary supply and fiber type may change.
38Blood Lactate, pH, and Bicarbonate (HCO3) in Eight Collegiate Swimmers Undergoing Detraining –Lactate (mmol/L) cpH cHCO3 (mmol/L) c 16.1c 16.3cSwim time (s)Measurement 0a 1b 2 4Weeks of detraining–Note. Measurements were taken immediately after a fixed-pace swim.aThe values at week 0 represent the measurements taken at the end of 5 months of training. bThe values for weeks 1, 2, and 4 are the results obtained after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of detraining, respectively. cSignificant difference from the value at the end of training.
39Loss of Cardiorespiratory Endurance w Losses are greatest in highly trained individuals.w Plasma volume decreasesw Stroke volume decreasesw VO2max decreases.w Endurance performance decreases
40Did You Know…?You can prevent rapid losses to your cardiorespiratory endurance with a minimum of three training sessions per week at an intensity of at least 70% VO2max..
42Effects of Detraining and Blood Volume Expansion Blood volume (ml) 5,177 4,692b 5,412Stroke volume (ml/beat)a b 164VO2max (L/min) b 4.28Exercise time to exhaustion (min) cParameter Trained Detrained DetrainedNormal Expanded blood blood volume volumeaStroke volume measured during submaximal exercise. bDenotes a significant difference from the trained (normal blood volume) and detrained (expanded blood volume) values. cDenotes a significant difference from the trained (normal blood volume) value..
43Retraining w Recovery of conditioning after a period of inactivity. w Affected by fitness level and the length and extent of inactivity.w If a cast allows some range of movement, retraining time can be reduced.w Electrical stimulation of muscles can prevent muscle fiber atrophy.
44Key Points Detraining and Retraining . w Detraining is the cessation of regular physical trainingw Retraining is resuming training after a period of inactivity.w The greater the training gains achieved, the greater the losses with detraining.w Detraining results in losses of muscle size, strength, power, and endurance; speed, agility, and flexibility; and cardiorespiratory endurance.w Detraining effects can be minimized by training three times a week at 70% VO2max..