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Overtraining versus Overreaching. Overtraining An imbalance between stress and recovery An imbalance between stress and recovery Stress can be training.

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Presentation on theme: "Overtraining versus Overreaching. Overtraining An imbalance between stress and recovery An imbalance between stress and recovery Stress can be training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overtraining versus Overreaching

2 Overtraining An imbalance between stress and recovery An imbalance between stress and recovery Stress can be training and non-training Stress can be training and non-training Long term decrease in performance Long term decrease in performance May take months to reverse May take months to reverse

3 Overreaching Occurs as the result of intensified training Occurs as the result of intensified training Considered a normal training outcome in elite athletes Considered a normal training outcome in elite athletes Short term Short term Reversible in several days to weeks, usually resulting in supercompensation Reversible in several days to weeks, usually resulting in supercompensation

4 General Adaptation Syndrome

5 Imbalance of training and recovery

6

7 Does overtraining exist? No diagnostic tool to identify athlete as overtrained No diagnostic tool to identify athlete as overtrained When performance declines and all other possibilities are excluded, then overtraining is diagnosed When performance declines and all other possibilities are excluded, then overtraining is diagnosed Continuum of overtraining and overreaching Continuum of overtraining and overreaching Current scientific and anecdotal evidence supports existence of Overtraining Syndrome Current scientific and anecdotal evidence supports existence of Overtraining Syndrome Lack of definitive objective indicators Lack of definitive objective indicators

8 Signs and Symptoms of Overtraining

9 Physiologic Decrease in VO2 max Decrease in VO2 max Decrease in Max Heart Rate Decrease in Max Heart Rate Reduced time to exhaustion Reduced time to exhaustion Decreased muscle glycogen stores Decreased muscle glycogen stores Decreased maximal lactate production Decreased maximal lactate production Increased heart rate at submaximal workloads Increased heart rate at submaximal workloads Increased basal metabolic rate Increased basal metabolic rate Weight loss Weight loss Insomnia Insomnia Decreased appetite Decreased appetite Decreased iron and ferratin Decreased iron and ferratin

10 Psycologic Depressed mood Depressed mood Anhedonia Anhedonia Malaise Malaise Disordered sleep Disordered sleep Poor concentration Poor concentration Anorexia Anorexia

11 Immunologic Increased URTIs Increased URTIs Poor healing of wounds Poor healing of wounds Decreased plasma GLUTAMINE Decreased plasma GLUTAMINE

12 Endocrine Decreased Testosterone Decreased Testosterone Max cortisol reduced following exercise Max cortisol reduced following exercise Resting cortisol? Resting cortisol? Testosterone:Cortisol ratio decreased 30% Testosterone:Cortisol ratio decreased 30%

13 Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic More common in sprint-type sports More common in sprint-type sports Short term? Short term?Parasympathetic Increased fatigue Increased fatigue Apathy Apathy Altered mood state Altered mood state Immune function Immune function Reproductive function Reproductive function “Modern form of overtraining” “Modern form of overtraining” Consequence of extended duration, high-intensity endurance training with little regeneration possibly in combination with other non- training stress factors Consequence of extended duration, high-intensity endurance training with little regeneration possibly in combination with other non- training stress factors

14 Heart Rate Variability Oscillation in the interval between consecutive beats Oscillation in the interval between consecutive beats Indicates activity of parasympathetic nervous system Indicates activity of parasympathetic nervous system

15 Monitoring Training and Recovery During Exercise Heart rate monitor Heart rate monitor Power meter Power meter GPS GPS RPE RPE Field Tests Field Tests Training Stress Score Training Stress Score TRIMP TRIMP At Rest Heart Rate Variability (Ithlete) Heart Rate Variability (Ithlete) Resting Heart Rate Resting Heart Rate Orthostatic heart rate test Orthostatic heart rate test Restwise Restwise Profile of Mood States (POMS) Profile of Mood States (POMS) Recovery-Cue Recovery-Cue

16 Recovery-Cue How much effort was required to complete my workouts last week? (1= Excessive effort to 5= Hardly any effort) How recovered did I feel prior to the workouts last week? (1= Still not recovered to 5=Feel energized and recharged) How successful was I at rest and recovery activities last week? (1= Not successful to 5=Successful) How well did I recover physically last week? (1=Never to 5=Always) How satisfied and relaxed was I as I fell asleep in the last week? (1=Never to 5=Always) How much fun did I have last week? (1=Never to 5=Always) How convinced was I that I could achieve my goals during performance last week? (1=Never to 5=Always)

17 Lab Tests Iron/Ferratin levels Iron/Ferratin levels Blood lactate vs RPE Blood lactate vs RPE VO2 max VO2 max Assessment of mitochondrial function Assessment of mitochondrial function Hormonal tests: Cortisol, HGH, Testosterone, Catecholamines, Salivary alpha-amylase Hormonal tests: Cortisol, HGH, Testosterone, Catecholamines, Salivary alpha-amylase

18 Contributors to overtraining Training load: Frequency x Duration x Intensity Training load: Frequency x Duration x Intensity Insufficient recovery Insufficient recovery Maladaptation Maladaptation Intensified training is the process, overreaching and overtraining are an outcome Intensified training is the process, overreaching and overtraining are an outcome Increased competitions Increased competitions Travel schedule Travel schedule Non-training stress Non-training stress Nutrition (glycogen levels) Nutrition (glycogen levels) Endurance sports vs team sports Endurance sports vs team sports

19 Planned Overreaching Elite athletes undulate their training more than age-group athletes Elite athletes undulate their training more than age-group athletes Recovery within week and between cycles Recovery within week and between cycles Crash training Crash training

20 Block Periodization To prevent overtraining To prevent overtraining Problem with high volume, multi-targeted training Problem with high volume, multi-targeted training Focused training on limited number of abilities Focused training on limited number of abilities Cumulative training theory Cumulative training theory Residual training theory Residual training theory

21 Tapering Training residuals Training residuals Disappearance of fatigue Disappearance of fatigue Supercompensation Supercompensation Depends on training load Depends on training load Depends on type of taper Depends on type of taper


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