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Overtraining versus Overreaching

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Presentation on theme: "Overtraining versus Overreaching"— Presentation transcript:

1 Overtraining versus Overreaching

2 Overtraining An imbalance between stress and recovery
Stress can be training and non-training Long term decrease in performance May take months to reverse

3 Overreaching Occurs as the result of intensified training
Considered a normal training outcome in elite athletes Short term Reversible in several days to weeks, usually resulting in supercompensation

4 General Adaptation Syndrome

5 Imbalance of training and recovery


7 Does overtraining exist?
No diagnostic tool to identify athlete as overtrained When performance declines and all other possibilities are excluded, then overtraining is diagnosed Continuum of overtraining and overreaching Current scientific and anecdotal evidence supports existence of Overtraining Syndrome Lack of definitive objective indicators

8 Signs and Symptoms of Overtraining

9 Physiologic Decrease in VO2 max Decrease in Max Heart Rate
Reduced time to exhaustion Decreased muscle glycogen stores Decreased maximal lactate production Increased heart rate at submaximal workloads Increased basal metabolic rate Weight loss Insomnia Decreased appetite Decreased iron and ferratin

10 Psycologic Depressed mood Anhedonia Malaise Disordered sleep
Poor concentration Anorexia

11 Immunologic Increased URTIs Poor healing of wounds
Decreased plasma GLUTAMINE

12 Endocrine Decreased Testosterone
Max cortisol reduced following exercise Resting cortisol? Testosterone:Cortisol ratio decreased 30%

13 Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic More common in sprint-type sports Short term? Parasympathetic Increased fatigue Apathy Altered mood state Immune function Reproductive function “Modern form of overtraining” Consequence of extended duration, high-intensity endurance training with little regeneration possibly in combination with other non-training stress factors

14 Heart Rate Variability
Oscillation in the interval between consecutive beats Indicates activity of parasympathetic nervous system

15 Monitoring Training and Recovery
During Exercise Heart rate monitor Power meter GPS RPE Field Tests Training Stress Score TRIMP At Rest Heart Rate Variability (Ithlete) Resting Heart Rate Orthostatic heart rate test Restwise Profile of Mood States (POMS) Recovery-Cue

16 Recovery-Cue How much effort was required to complete my workouts last week? (1= Excessive effort to 5= Hardly any effort) How recovered did I feel prior to the workouts last week? (1= Still not recovered to 5=Feel energized and recharged) How successful was I at rest and recovery activities last week? (1= Not successful to 5=Successful) How well did I recover physically last week? (1=Never to 5=Always) How satisfied and relaxed was I as I fell asleep in the last week? (1=Never to 5=Always) How much fun did I have last week? (1=Never to 5=Always) How convinced was I that I could achieve my goals during performance last week? (1=Never to 5=Always)

17 Lab Tests Iron/Ferratin levels Blood lactate vs RPE VO2 max
Assessment of mitochondrial function Hormonal tests: Cortisol, HGH, Testosterone, Catecholamines, Salivary alpha-amylase

18 Contributors to overtraining
Training load: Frequency x Duration x Intensity Insufficient recovery Maladaptation Intensified training is the process, overreaching and overtraining are an outcome Increased competitions Travel schedule Non-training stress Nutrition (glycogen levels) Endurance sports vs team sports

19 Planned Overreaching Elite athletes undulate their training more than age-group athletes Recovery within week and between cycles Crash training

20 Block Periodization To prevent overtraining
Problem with high volume, multi-targeted training Focused training on limited number of abilities Cumulative training theory Residual training theory

21 Tapering Training residuals Disappearance of fatigue Supercompensation
Depends on training load Depends on type of taper

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