Presentation on theme: "Periodization in Strength and Conditioning Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 Periodization in Strength and Conditioning Training By: Lisa Martin CSCSDirector of Strength and Conditioning
2 Ideas behind Periodization Although training will produce positive outcomes, the desirable results can not continue indefinitely.General Adaptation Syndrome- body adapts easilyLess frequent physical and psychological adaptationsPlateaus, overtraining, risk of injuryIn order to gain any particular aspect of strength or conditioning, you need to overload your system with increased external stimulus
3 General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Alarm- body is introduced to new or increased stressSoreness, temporary drop in performanceResistance Phase- body adapts to stimulus and returns to regular functioning“super compensation”- relies on neurological adaptations to continue training while muscle tissue undergoes biochemical, structural and mechanical adjustmentsExhaustion- overtrainingFatigue, soreness; non-training stress may aid in leading to this stage
4 Definition of Periodization Periodization is an organized approach to training that involves progressive cycling of various aspects of a training program during a specific period of time to bring about optimal gains in physical performance.
5 Look Again Periodization is an organized approach to training that involves progressive cycling ofvarious aspects of a training programduring a specific period of timeto bring about optimal gains in physical performance.
6 Why do we program this way? Periodization is most widely used in resistance program design to avoid over-training and to systematically alternate high loads of training with decreased loading phases to improve components of muscular fitness (strength, strength-speed, strength-endurance) aiming to peak at the most advantageous time for an athlete
7 Traditional ModelsTraditional models of periodization describes a progression from high volume and low-intensity work towards decreasing volume and increasing intensity during the different cycles.3 Traditional ModelsStepwise periodization- a reduction in volume and an increase in intensity in steps during the training cycleOverreaching periodization- there is periodic short term (1-2 week) increase in volume or intensity followed by a return to normal trainingUndulating periodization- training volume and intensity are increased and decreased on a regular basis, but not in the general pattern of always increasing intensity and decreasing volume as the training period progresses
8 “Various Aspects”Many training variables can be manipulated in an attempt to optimize the exercise program:# of sets per exercise# of repetitions per setTypes, order and # of exercises per training sessionRest periods between sets and exercisesResistance/LoadType and tempo of muscle action (e.g., eccentric, concentric, isometric)Frequency of training sessions
9 Volume vs. IntensityIntensity- the weight lifted in relationship to a maximal strength level (e.g., one repetition maximum), or a multiple repetition maximum (e.g., 10 repetition maximum).In a running or conditioning program, intensity is often used to describe a percentage of an age predicted maximum heart rate or Vo2 max.Volume- refers to the TOTAL number of repetitions, sets and exercises performed in a strength training sessionIn a running session, volume refers to the total distance and/or time of a conditioning programRELATIONSHIP:the higher the intensity, the lower the volume of a particular exercise or workout.the lower the intensity, the higher the volume
10 “Specific Period of Time” Macrocyle- 1 to 4 yearsMesocycle- a couple weeks to monthsMicrocycle- 1 to 4 weeks (daily to weekly variations)
11 Time Intervals Specific to Collegiate Athletes Macrocyle- 1 YearMesocycleOff Season Phase (Preparatory)Pre Season Phase (Transition I)In Season Phase (Competition)Post Season Phase (Transition II)
12 Time Intervals Specific to Collegiate Athletes, cont. Fall SportsOff Season: January-JunePre Season: July-AugustCompetition: September-NovemberPost Season: DecemberWinter SportsOff Season: May-AugustPre Season: September-OctoberCompetition: November-MarchPost Season: AprilSpring SportsOff Season: July-DecemberPre Season: January-FebruaryCompetition: March-MayPost Season: June
13 Off Season Phase (Preparatory) Longest MesocycleEmphasis: Conditioning base, correct muscle imbalances, aid in muscular endurance, develop neural adaptations to prepare athletes for increased intensity3 Phases (Microcycles)HypertrophyBasic StrengthStrength/Power
14 3 Phases In Off Season Hypertrophy/Endurance (1-6 weeks) Increase anaerobic capacity, increase lean muscle mass, develop muscular and metabolic endurance baseRecovery week of low intensity/low volume afterwards50-75% of 1RM / 3-5 sets of repsBasic StrengthIncrease strength of muscles relative to sport, become more sport specific, heavier loads, less volume78-90% of 1RM / 3-5 sets of 4-8 repsStrength/PowerExplosive Training at high loads and low volume75-95% of 1RM / 3-5 sets of 2-5 reps
15 Novice/Beginner Athletes Can not tolerate drastic changes in volume or intensityLinear Periodization Model: Start at lower intensities and higher volume protocols in order to condition and train neural muscular pathwaysMay stay in low intensity training periods for a longer time
16 Advanced/Elite Athletes Typically train closer to their abilities train at high volume and high intensity, and have smaller adaptation windowsSummated Microcycle Periodization: Basic macrocyclic pattern of decreasing volume and increasing intensity is evident, but both parameters vary at meso- and microcycle levels more frequentlyIncrease volume and intensity each week for 3 weeks then unload for a week
17 Pre-Season Phase (Transition I) Short duration- May only consist of 1-4 weeks of training in this phaseEmphasis: sport-specific training, technique work, high intensity training/ low volume, longer periods of rest, injury prevention work, train speed, agility and quickness
18 In Season Phase (Competition) Lasts duration of season- can be 3-5 monthsEmphasis: increased technique and injury prevention work, decreased volume, preserve strength if not get stronger, more explosiveMaintenance: 80-85% of 1RM / 2-3 sets of 6-8 repsPeak: >93% of 1RM / 1-3 sets of 1-3 reps
19 Post Season Phase (Transition II) “Regeneration Phase”- unstructured active rest cycleShort duration- 1 to 4 weeksEmphasis: non-sport specific activities, low intensity/low volume, rehab injuries, rest physically and mentallyUnloading week afterwards to prepare body for increased physical demands
20 Unloading PhasesCareful not to detrain (time of interrupted training resulting in a loss of psychological adaptations)Emphasis: create less fatigue but maintain fitness levelsOverall volume should be decreased, primarily by cutting out the non-specific tasks and low intensity exercisesCan only happen 2 to 3 times per year and lasts anywhere between a couple days to 1 monthShorter durations are appropriate when the preceding mesocycle involved a progressive reduction in volume/loadLonger durations needed when preceding phase involved high volume/loadFrequency should be maintained at relatively high levels, 80% of normal, especially for elite athletesDuring final competition phases, athletes can reduce frequency to 30-50% in order to achieve large reductions in volumeProgressive declines in volume produce better results than sharp dramatic drops in volume
21 ConclusionPeriodization is an organized approach to training that involves progressive cycling of various aspects of a training program during a specific period of time to bring about optimal gains in physical performance.QUESTIONS?