Presentation on theme: "Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training. Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Increased cardiorespiratory endurance u Increased muscular."— Presentation transcript:
Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training
Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Increased cardiorespiratory endurance u Increased muscular endurance u Decreased VO 2 at rest and submaximal exercise u IncreasedVO 2 Max u Increased heart weight, volume, and chamber size u Increased left ventricle wall thickness athletes heart u Increased left ventricle EDV u Increased blood plasma u Increased Stroke Volume (fig. 10.3) u from increased EDV and decreased ESV = increased EF u Frank-Starling law: elastic recoil of the ventricle
Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Decreased resting heart rate u from increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity. u Decreased submaximal heart rate u Decreased maximum heart rate of elite athletes u if your heart rate is too fast the period of ventricular filling is reduced and your stroke volume might be compromised. u the heart expends less energy by contracting less often but more forcibly than it would by contracting more often. u Decreased Heart Rate Recovery (fig. 10.5)
Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Maintained cardiac output at rest and submaximal exercise u Increased cardiac output during maximal exercise u Increased blood flow to the muscles u increased capillarization of trained muscles u greater opening of existing capillaries in trained muscles u more effective blood redistribution u increased blood volume u decreased blood viscosity & increased oxygen delivery u Decreased resting blood pressure, but is unchanged during exercise u from increased blood flow
Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Increased blood volume (blood plasma) and is greater with more intense levels of training u increased release of antidiuretic hormone u increased plasma proteins which help retain blood fluid u increased red blood cell volume u decreased blood viscosity
Respiratory Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Respiratory system functioning usually does not limit performance because ventilation can be increased to a greater extent than cardiovascular function. u Slight increase in Total lung Capacity u Slight decrease in Residual Lung Volume u Increased Tidal Volume at maximal exercise levels u Decreased respiratory rate and pulmonary ventilation at rest and at submaximal exercise u (RR) decreases because of greater pulmonary efficiency u Increased respiratory rate and pulmonary ventilation at maximal exercise levels u from increased tidal volume
Respiratory Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Unchanged pulmonary diffusion at rest and submaximal exercise. u Increased pulmonary diffusion during maximal exercise. u from increased circulation and increased ventilation u from more alveoli involved during maximal exercise u Increased A-VO2 difference especially at maximal exercise.
Metabolic Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Lactate threshold occurs at a higher percentage of VO 2 Max. u from a greater ability to clear lactate from the muscles u from an increase in skeletal muscle enzymes u Decreased Respiratory Exchange Ratio (ratio of carbon dioxide released to oxygen consumed) u from a higher utilization of fatty acids instead of carbos u however, the RER increases from the ability to perform at maximum levels of exercise for longer periods of time because of high lactate tolerance. u Increased resting metabolic rate u Decreased VO 2 during submaximal exercise u from a metabolic efficiency and mechanical efficiency
Metabolic Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Large increases in VO2 Max u in mature athletes, the highest attainable VO2 Max is reached within 8 to 18 months of heavy endurance training. u VO2 Max is influenced by training in early childhood. u from increased oxidative enzymes u from increased size and number of mitochondria u from increased blood volume, cardiac output & O2 diffusion u from increased capillary density
Cardiorespiratory Adaptations From Anaerobic Training u Small increase in cardiorespiratory endurance u Small increase in VO2 Max u Small increases in Stroke Volume
Cardiorespiratory Adaptations From Resistance Training u Small increase in left ventricle size u Decreased resting heart rate u Decreased submaximal heart rate u Decreased resting blood pressure is greater than from endurance training u Resistance training has a positive effect on aerobic endurance but aerobic endurance has a negative effect on strength, speed and power. u muscular strength is decreased u reaction and movement times are decreased u agility and neuromuscular coordination are decreased u concentration and alterness are decreased
Factors Affecting the Adaptation to Aerobic Training u Heredity accounts for between 25% and 50% of the variance in VO 2 Max values. u Age-Related decreases in VO 2 Max might partly result from an age-related decrease in activity levels. u Gender plays a small role (10% difference) in the VO 2 Max values of male and female endurance athletes. u There will be RESPONDERS (large improvement) and NONRESPONDERS (little improvement) among groups of people who experience identical training. u The greater the Specificity of Training for a given sport or activity, the greater the improvement in performance.
Applications to Exercise u Breathe Right nasal strips u head up during recovery u O 2 on the sidelines u active recovery u stretching before and after intense exercise u smokers beware u stitch in the side u second wind u resist the valsalva u exercise increases the quality of life more than the quantity of life