2Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training Increased cardiorespiratory enduranceIncreased muscular enduranceDecreased VO2 at rest and submaximal exerciseIncreasedVO2 MaxIncreased heart weight, volume, and chamber sizeIncreased left ventricle wall thickness “athletes heart”Increased left ventricle EDVIncreased blood plasmaIncreased Stroke Volume (fig. 10.3)from increased EDV and decreased ESV = increased EFFrank-Starling law: elastic recoil of the ventricle
3Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training Decreased resting heart ratefrom increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity.Decreased submaximal heart rateDecreased maximum heart rate of elite athletesif your heart rate is too fast the period of ventricular filling is reduced and your stroke volume might be compromised.the heart expends less energy by contracting less often but more forcibly than it would by contracting more often.Decreased Heart Rate Recovery (fig. 10.5)
4Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training Maintained cardiac output at rest and submaximal exerciseIncreased cardiac output during maximal exerciseIncreased blood flow to the musclesincreased capillarization of trained musclesgreater opening of existing capillaries in trained musclesmore effective blood redistributionincreased blood volumedecreased blood viscosity & increased oxygen deliveryDecreased resting blood pressure, but is unchanged during exercisefrom increased blood flow
5Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training Increased blood volume (blood plasma) and is greater with more intense levels of trainingincreased release of antidiuretic hormoneincreased plasma proteins which help retain blood fluidincreased red blood cell volumedecreased blood viscosity
6Respiratory Adaptations From Aerobic Training Respiratory system functioning usually does not limit performance because ventilation can be increased to a greater extent than cardiovascular function.Slight increase in Total lung CapacitySlight decrease in Residual Lung VolumeIncreased Tidal Volume at maximal exercise levelsDecreased respiratory rate and pulmonary ventilation at rest and at submaximal exercise(RR) decreases because of greater pulmonary efficiencyIncreased respiratory rate and pulmonary ventilation at maximal exercise levelsfrom increased tidal volume
7Respiratory Adaptations From Aerobic Training Unchanged pulmonary diffusion at rest and submaximal exercise.Increased pulmonary diffusion during maximal exercise.from increased circulation and increased ventilationfrom more alveoli involved during maximal exerciseIncreased A-VO2 difference especially at maximal exercise.
8Metabolic Adaptations From Aerobic Training Lactate threshold occurs at a higher percentage of VO2 Max.from a greater ability to clear lactate from the musclesfrom an increase in skeletal muscle enzymesDecreased Respiratory Exchange Ratio (ratio of carbon dioxide released to oxygen consumed)from a higher utilization of fatty acids instead of carbo’showever, the RER increases from the ability to perform at maximum levels of exercise for longer periods of time because of high lactate tolerance.Increased resting metabolic rateDecreased VO2 during submaximal exercisefrom a metabolic efficiency and mechanical efficiency
9Metabolic Adaptations From Aerobic Training Large increases in VO2 Maxin mature athletes, the highest attainable VO2 Max is reached within 8 to 18 months of heavy endurance training.VO2 Max is influenced by “training” in early childhood.from increased oxidative enzymesfrom increased size and number of mitochondriafrom increased blood volume, cardiac output & O2 diffusionfrom increased capillary density
10Cardiorespiratory Adaptations From Anaerobic Training Small increase in cardiorespiratory enduranceSmall increase in VO2 MaxSmall increases in Stroke Volume
11Cardiorespiratory Adaptations From Resistance Training Small increase in left ventricle sizeDecreased resting heart rateDecreased submaximal heart rateDecreased resting blood pressure is greater than from endurance trainingResistance training has a positive effect on aerobic endurance but aerobic endurance has a negative effect on strength, speed and power.muscular strength is decreasedreaction and movement times are decreasedagility and neuromuscular coordination are decreasedconcentration and alterness are decreased
12Factors Affecting the Adaptation to Aerobic Training Heredity accounts for between 25% and 50% of the variance in VO2 Max values.Age-Related decreases in VO2 Max might partly result from an age-related decrease in activity levels.Gender plays a small role (10% difference) in the VO2 Max values of male and female endurance athletes.There will be RESPONDERS (large improvement) and NONRESPONDERS (little improvement) among groups of people who experience identical training.The greater the Specificity of Training for a given sport or activity, the greater the improvement in performance.
13Applications to Exercise Breathe Right nasal strips“head up” during recoveryO2 on the sidelinesactive recoverystretching before and after intense exercisesmokers bewarestitch in the sidesecond windresist the valsalvaexercise increases the quality of life more than the quantity of life