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Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

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Presentation on theme: "Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

2 Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training
Increased cardiorespiratory endurance Increased muscular endurance Decreased VO2 at rest and submaximal exercise IncreasedVO2 Max Increased heart weight, volume, and chamber size Increased left ventricle wall thickness “athletes heart” Increased left ventricle EDV Increased blood plasma Increased Stroke Volume (fig. 10.3) from increased EDV and decreased ESV = increased EF Frank-Starling law: elastic recoil of the ventricle

3 Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training
Decreased resting heart rate from increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity. Decreased submaximal heart rate Decreased maximum heart rate of elite athletes if your heart rate is too fast the period of ventricular filling is reduced and your stroke volume might be compromised. the heart expends less energy by contracting less often but more forcibly than it would by contracting more often. Decreased Heart Rate Recovery (fig. 10.5)

4 Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training
Maintained cardiac output at rest and submaximal exercise Increased cardiac output during maximal exercise Increased blood flow to the muscles increased capillarization of trained muscles greater opening of existing capillaries in trained muscles more effective blood redistribution increased blood volume decreased blood viscosity & increased oxygen delivery Decreased resting blood pressure, but is unchanged during exercise from increased blood flow

5 Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training
Increased blood volume (blood plasma) and is greater with more intense levels of training increased release of antidiuretic hormone increased plasma proteins which help retain blood fluid increased red blood cell volume decreased blood viscosity

6 Respiratory Adaptations From Aerobic Training
Respiratory system functioning usually does not limit performance because ventilation can be increased to a greater extent than cardiovascular function. Slight increase in Total lung Capacity Slight decrease in Residual Lung Volume Increased Tidal Volume at maximal exercise levels Decreased respiratory rate and pulmonary ventilation at rest and at submaximal exercise (RR) decreases because of greater pulmonary efficiency Increased respiratory rate and pulmonary ventilation at maximal exercise levels from increased tidal volume

7 Respiratory Adaptations From Aerobic Training
Unchanged pulmonary diffusion at rest and submaximal exercise. Increased pulmonary diffusion during maximal exercise. from increased circulation and increased ventilation from more alveoli involved during maximal exercise Increased A-VO2 difference especially at maximal exercise.

8 Metabolic Adaptations From Aerobic Training
Lactate threshold occurs at a higher percentage of VO2 Max. from a greater ability to clear lactate from the muscles from an increase in skeletal muscle enzymes Decreased Respiratory Exchange Ratio (ratio of carbon dioxide released to oxygen consumed) from a higher utilization of fatty acids instead of carbo’s however, the RER increases from the ability to perform at maximum levels of exercise for longer periods of time because of high lactate tolerance. Increased resting metabolic rate Decreased VO2 during submaximal exercise from a metabolic efficiency and mechanical efficiency

9 Metabolic Adaptations From Aerobic Training
Large increases in VO2 Max in mature athletes, the highest attainable VO2 Max is reached within 8 to 18 months of heavy endurance training. VO2 Max is influenced by “training” in early childhood. from increased oxidative enzymes from increased size and number of mitochondria from increased blood volume, cardiac output & O2 diffusion from increased capillary density

10 Cardiorespiratory Adaptations From Anaerobic Training
Small increase in cardiorespiratory endurance Small increase in VO2 Max Small increases in Stroke Volume

11 Cardiorespiratory Adaptations From Resistance Training
Small increase in left ventricle size Decreased resting heart rate Decreased submaximal heart rate Decreased resting blood pressure is greater than from endurance training Resistance training has a positive effect on aerobic endurance but aerobic endurance has a negative effect on strength, speed and power. muscular strength is decreased reaction and movement times are decreased agility and neuromuscular coordination are decreased concentration and alterness are decreased

12 Factors Affecting the Adaptation to Aerobic Training
Heredity accounts for between 25% and 50% of the variance in VO2 Max values. Age-Related decreases in VO2 Max might partly result from an age-related decrease in activity levels. Gender plays a small role (10% difference) in the VO2 Max values of male and female endurance athletes. There will be RESPONDERS (large improvement) and NONRESPONDERS (little improvement) among groups of people who experience identical training. The greater the Specificity of Training for a given sport or activity, the greater the improvement in performance.

13 Applications to Exercise
Breathe Right nasal strips “head up” during recovery O2 on the sidelines active recovery stretching before and after intense exercise smokers beware stitch in the side second wind resist the valsalva exercise increases the quality of life more than the quantity of life

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