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Using Periodization to Plan Programs Dr. Jason R. Karp, Ph.D. Owner, RunCoachJason.com Director/Coach, REVO 2 LT Running Team TM Cross Country Coach, San.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Periodization to Plan Programs Dr. Jason R. Karp, Ph.D. Owner, RunCoachJason.com Director/Coach, REVO 2 LT Running Team TM Cross Country Coach, San."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Periodization to Plan Programs Dr. Jason R. Karp, Ph.D. Owner, RunCoachJason.com Director/Coach, REVO 2 LT Running Team TM Cross Country Coach, San Diego State University Freelance writer & author 2009 U.S. All-Star Track & Field and Cross Country Clinic

2 Periodization Method for structuring training programs into periods or phases using programmed variation of training loads and rest periods in a cyclic fashion to elicit improvements in fitness and performance. It involves manipulating or systematically changing training variables at regular intervals of time. Idea originated in the 1920s in response to the year-long training practices of athletes.

3 Training Theory Positive physiological adaptation to exercise occurs with correctly-timed alternation between stress and recovery. Following a training stress, body adapts & physiologically overcompensates so that the same stress, if reintroduced, does not cause same degree of physiological disruption. In short, the body adapts to be able to handle the stress. Following adaptation, body can do more work. Aim of periodization is to provide training stimuli in such a fashion that higher & higher levels of adaptation are achieved.

4 Training Theory Improvements in fitness (strength, endurance, speed, power, etc.) occur during the recovery period between workouts, not during the workout itself.

5 Time Level Fitness Fatigue

6 Research Findings Periodized vs. non-periodized strength training programs Kraemer et al. (2000): female collegiate tennis players; 2-3 x week for 9 months significantly greater increases in bench press, shoulder press, & leg press 1-RMs, tennis serve velocity, & lean body mass significantly greater decrease in % body fat Willoughby (1993): weight trained college-aged males; 3 x week for 16 weeks significantly greater increases in bench press & squat 1-RMs OBryant et al. (1988): untrained college-aged males; 3 x week for 11 weeks significantly greater increases in squat 1-RM & maximal cycling power Stowers et al. (1983): untrained college-aged males; 3 x week for 7 weeks significantly greater increases in squat 1-RM, vertical jump, & lean body mass

7 Research Findings Stone et al. (1981): college-aged males; 3 x week for 6 weeks significantly greater increase in squat 1-RM significantly greater decrease in % body fat Baker et al. (1994): weight-trained males; 3 x week for 12 weeks similar improvements in bench press & squat 1-RMs, vertical jump, & lean body mass Herrick & Stone (1996): untrained college-aged females; 2 x week for 15 weeks similar improvements in bench press & squat 1-RMs Prestes et al. (2009): compared linear periodization (LP; RM to 4-6 RM) to reverse linear periodization (RLP; 4-6 RM to RM) women w/at least 6 months weight training experience; 3 x week for 12 weeks only LP group increased fat-free mass & decreased fat mass both types of training significantly increased strength (bench press, lat pull- down, arm curl, & leg extension), however LP group increased strength significantly more did than RLP group

8 Research Conclusions Periodized programs are better than non-periodized programs, especially in the long-term. Increases in strength with periodized programs are partly due to decreases in training volume.

9 Types of Training Loads Stimulating Loads increase fitness increase training volume, intensity, or volume of intensity Maintenance Loads maintain fitness maintain one component while improving another component Recovery Loads used before increase in training volume or intensity used during taper

10 Cycles of Training Macrocycles (3-4 months) describe the overall phase/season of training Mesocycles (3-6 weeks) include 1 or 2 purposes/training emphases use stimulating loads for primary purpose use maintenance loads for secondary purpose Microcycles (1 week) include individual workouts to match training purpose(s)

11 Time Mesocycle Recovery Microcycles Training Load Time Mesocycle Overload Microcycles Training Load

12 Microcycles M T W Th F S S Microcycle with one peak Training Load High Medium Low Rest High Medium Low Rest M T W Th F S S Microcycle with two peaks Training Load

13 High Medium Low M T W Th F S S Microcycle with two peaks Training Load High Medium Low Rest M T W Th F S S Microcycle with two peaks Training Load

14 High M T W Th F S S Microcycle with three peaks Training Load Medium Low Rest

15 Building a Periodized Program Step 1: Establish goals Step 2: Identify how to train to reach goals Step 3: List physiological variables (VO 2 max, LT, etc.) Step 4: Ask yourself: Theme of each cycle? (Aerobic capacity? VO 2 max? LT?) How do I order training stimuli? Step 5: Determine periods of emphasis or maintenance of each variable Step 6: Choose length & objective of each mesocycle & microcycle Step 7: Design individual workouts to match objective(s) of each microcycle

16 Type of Training Example of Workout HR (% max) PaceTime of YearPurposes Aerobic Capacity (Endurance) Easy running: min 70-75%1.5 to 2 min/mile slower than 5K race pace Base phase/ preseason & during entire training year as recovery days between harder workouts Increase mitochondrial & capillary density Increase aerobic enzyme activity Increase blood volume Improve running economy Lactate Threshold 20-minute tempo LT pace 4 x 1 LT pace w/1 min rest 80-90%20-25 sec/mile slower than 5K pace or sec/ mile slower than 10K pace Late base phase/early competitive phase Improve lactate threshold Elevate intensity of running at which person begins to fatigue Aerobic Power (VO 2 max) Long intervals (3- 5 min) w/1:<1 work:rest ratio %~ 2-mile race pace Early to mid- competitive phase Improve VO 2 max Increase stroke volume & cardiac output Anaerobic Glycolysis Short intervals (45-90 sec) w/1:2 work:rest ratio N/AMile race pace or slightly faster Mid- to late- competitive phase Improve anaerobic endurance Improve muscles ability to tolerate and buffer muscle acidosis ATP-CP (Phosphagen) System Very short intervals (5-15 sec) w/2-5 min rest N/AClose to top speed Mid- to late- competitive phase Increase muscle power production Recruit fast-twitch motor units

17 Mesocycle Training Primary workout target stimulating loads Secondary workout target stimulating/maintenance loads Manipulation of volume/intensity

18 Training Phases Base Phase Early Competitive Phase Mid-Competitive Phase Late-Competitive Phase

19 Base Phase Focus is on volume Aerobic Capacity (Endurance) primary purpose Lactate Threshold secondary purpose Fartleks secondary purpose

20 Early Competitive Phase Lactate Threshold primary purpose Aerobic Capacity (Endurance) secondary purpose Aerobic Power (VO 2 max) secondary purpose

21 Mid-Competitive Phase Aerobic Power (VO 2 max) primary purpose Anaerobic Capacity (Glycolysis) secondary purpose

22 Late-Competitive Phase Focus is on intensity Anaerobic Capacity (Glycolysis) primary purpose Racing primary purpose Anaerobic Power (Phosphagen System) secondary purpose

23 Mesocycle #1: Primary - Aerobic Capacity Secondary – Lactate Threshold Week 1: 35 miles Week 2: 35 miles Week 3: 23 miles Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun 4 miles5 miles LT Cruise Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 3x1 LT pace w/1:00 rest - 2 mi warm-down 4 miles6 milesRest9 miles 4 miles5 miles LT Run - 2 mi warm-up - 3 LTpace - 2 mi warm-down 4 miles6 milesRest9 miles 2 miles4 miles LT Cruise Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 2x1 LT pace w/1:00 rest - 1 mi warm-down 2 miles4 milesRest6 miles Base Phase

24 Mesocycle #2: Primary - Aerobic Capacity Secondary – Lactate Threshold Week 4: 40 miles Week 5: 40 miles Week 6: 27 miles Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun 5 miles6 miles LT Cruise Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 4x1 LT pace w/1:00 rest - 2 mi warm-down 5 miles6 milesRest10 miles 5 miles6 miles LT Run - 2 mi warm-up - 4 LT pace - 2 mi warm-down 5 miles6 milesRest10 miles 3 miles4 miles LT Cruise Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 3x1 LT pace w/1:00 rest - 1 mi warm-down 3 miles4 milesRest7 miles

25 Mesocycle #4: Primary – Lactate Threshold Secondary – Aerobic Capacity Week 10: 60 miles Week 11: 60 miles Week 12: 40 miles Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun am: 4 miles pm: 6 miles LT Cruise Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - LT pace w/1:00 rest - 2 mi warm-down am: 4 miles pm: 7 miles 10 miles8 milesRest LT/LSD Combo 11 miles + 2 LT pace am: 4 miles pm: 6 miles LT Cruise Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - LT pace w/1:00 rest - 2 mi warm-down am: 4 miles pm: 7 miles 8 miles LT Run - 2 mi warm-up - 4 LT pace - 2 mi warm- down Rest14 miles 5 miles LT Cruise Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - LT pace w/1:00 rest - 1 mi warm-down 8 miles7 miles5 milesRest 10K RACE Early Competitive Phase

26 Mesocycle #10: Primary – VO 2 max Secondary – Anaerobic Capacity (Glycolysis) Week 28: 40 miles Week 29: 40 miles Week 30: 27 miles Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun 5 miles + 5x100m strides Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 3K race pace w/3:00 rec - 2 mi warm-down 7 miles 6 miles + 5x100m strides Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 3K race pace w/:45 rec - 2 mi warm down Rest9 miles 6 miles + 5x100m strides Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 3K race pace w/2:30 rec - 2 mi warm-down 6 miles6 miles + 5x100m strides Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - mile race pace w/2:00 rec - 2 mi warm-down Rest 10 miles 3 miles + 5x100m strides Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - mile race pace w/2:00 rec - 1 mi warm-down 5 miles4 miles + 5x100m strides Rest 3,000m RACE 6 miles Mid-Competitive Phase

27 Mesocycle #6: Anaerobic Capacity (Glycolysis) Week 16: 34 miles Week 17: 24 miles Week 18: 20 miles Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 2 sets of 800/400/200/ mile race pace w/1:2 work:rest ratio - 1 mi warm-down 5 miles + 5x100m strides 7 miles Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - mile race pace w/1:2 work: rest ratio - 1 mi warm- down 5 miles + 5x100m strides 8 milesRest Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 2 sets of 800/400/200/ mile race pace w/1:2 work:rest ratio - 1 mi warm-down 4 miles + 5x100m strides 2 miles + 5x100m strides MILE RACE3 miles + 5x100m strides 6 milesRest Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - mile race pace w/1:2 work: rest ratio - 1 mi warm-down 3 miles + 5x100m strides Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - mile race pace w/1:2 work: rest ratio - 1 mi warm-down 3 miles + 5x100m strides 2 miles + 5x100m strides MILE RACE Rest Late-Competitive Phase (Mile)

28 Mesocycle #6: Lactate Threshold/Marathon Pace/Taper Week 27: 56 miles Week 28: 40 miles Week 29: 28 miles (+ marathon) Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun 7 miles9 miles Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - 10K race pace w/2:30 recovery - 2 mi warm- down 8 miles9 milesRest LT/LSD Combo 8 miles + 4 LT pace + 2 miles faster than LT pace 4 miles8 goal marathon pace 6 miles5 miles7 milesRest 5 miles + 5 goal marathon pace 5 miles LT Cruise Intervals - 2 mi warm-up - slightly faster than LT pace w/ :45 rest - 2 mi warm-down 7 miles5 miles4 milesRest MARATHON RACE Late-Competitive Phase (Marathon)

29 References & Recommended Readings Baker, D., Wilson, G., and Carlyon, R. (1994). Periodization: The effect on strength of manipulating volume and intensity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 8(4): Bompa, T.O. (1999). Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Fleck, S.J. (1999). Periodized strength training: A critical review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 13(1): Herrick, A.B. and Stone, W.J. (1996). The effects of periodization versus progressive resistance exercise on upper and lower body strength in women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 10(2): Kraemer, W.J., Ratamess, N., Fry, A.C., Triplett-McBride, T., Koziris, P., Bauer, J.A., Lynch, J.M., and Fleck, S.J. (2000). Influence of resistance training volume and periodization on physiological and performance adaptations in collegiate women tennis players. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 28(5): OBryant, H.S., Byrd, R., and Stone, M.H. (1988). Cycle ergometer performance and maximum leg and hip strength adaptations to two different methods of weight training. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research. 2: Plisk, S.S. and Stone, M.H. (2003). Periodization strategies. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 25(6): Prestes, J., De Lima, C., Frollini, A.B., Donatto, F.F., and Conte, M. (2009). Comparison of linear and reverse linear periodization effects on maximal strength and body composition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(1): Stone, M.H., OBryant, H., and Garhammer, J. (1981). A hypothetical model for strength training. (1981). Journal of Sports Medicine. 21: Stowers, T., McMillian, J., Scala, D., Davis, V., Wilson, D., and Stone, M. (1983). The short-term effects of three different strength-power training methods. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal. 5: Willoughby, D.S. (1993). The effects of mesocycle-length weight training programs involving periodization: and partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 7(1):2-8.


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