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COURSE AIMS OHT 1 Recognise how cultural differences impact on the process of building effective international relationships Identify specific areas of.

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Presentation on theme: "COURSE AIMS OHT 1 Recognise how cultural differences impact on the process of building effective international relationships Identify specific areas of."— Presentation transcript:

1 COURSE AIMS OHT 1 Recognise how cultural differences impact on the process of building effective international relationships Identify specific areas of cultural diversity (linked to communication style, business values and working practices) Agree on how best to work in multicultural teams, communicate across cultures and manage the distance factor Identify and develop the personal qualities required for working effectively across cultures A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

2 PREVIEWING TASK OHT 2 What process of globalisation is this company seeking to go through? What is the role of Morel in this process? What advantage will the company attain from moving to a global structure in taking its new product to the market? A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

3 ICEBERG THEORY OHT 3 A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES B1B1 V1V1 B2B2 V2V2 B = Behaviour (what you do and say) V = Values (beliefs about what is right to do and say)

4 THE MIS FACTOR OHT 4 A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES MISperception MISevaluation MISinterpretation MIStrust

5 TYPES OF CULTURAL GROUPS OHT 5 Nationality Age Gender Physical ability Socio-economic class Sexual orientation Political group Organisational Educational level/type Functional Religion Manchester United supporters A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

6 TOLERANCE ZONES OHT 6 A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES number of people Relationship focus essential before task is typical Task focus before (optional) relationship focus is typical Culture ACulture B

7 POLYCHRONIC PREFERENCE OHT 7 Belief: There are various ways to achieve our objectives so we should: Keep options open as long as possible Manage activities in parallel Discuss things generally first Be open to new inputs at all times Value commitment to special people Respond to changing priorities Use schedules as guidelines Invest time in people Allow plans to evolve Value multi-tasking behaviour Loosely based on the concepts of Edward T. Hall A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

8 UNIVERSALISTS v PARTICULARISTS OHT 8 UNIVERSALISTS Belief: Common standards and rules should be followed and everyone should be treated the same. Exceptions weaken the system we depend on: Trust placed in systems and models People are assigned to tasks Core business focus Standardisation & globalisation Fairness & consistency Transparency & simplification Objective measurement Similarity and linking (Yes, and…) Black & white photo – facts convince Analytical marketing Science of management Loosely based on the concepts of Fons Trompenaars A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES PARTICULARISTS Belief: Obligations to particular people and special circumstances come before abstract rules. Without exceptions, we weaken the human ties we depend on: Trust placed in networks of relationships Tasks are assigned to people Flexible customer focus Customisation & localisation Particular circumstances & requirements Appropriateness & contextualisation Subjective measurement Exceptions and disparity (Yes, but…) Oil painting – opinions convince Personal networking Art of management

9 INDIVIDUALISTS v COLLECTIVISTS OHT 9 INDIVIDUALISTS Values of freedom, honesty, self-actualisation I identity Individual goals Look after yourself and immediate family Distinguish own priorities and opinions from others in the group Conflict is inevitable and if well channelled can lead to positive outcomes Control through personal guilt Low sense of in-group/out-group, individuals form groups based on common interests or tasks; low sense of personal obligation to members of the group There is a basic right to privacy Loosely based on the concepts of H. Triandis, S. Ting-Toomey and G. Hofstede A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES COLLECTIVISTS Values of harmony, face-saving, meeting in-groups needs WE identity Group goals Group loyalty provides security Do not distinguish own priorities and opinions from others in the group Conflict should be avoided as it disturbs group harmony and so motivation Control through group shame Strong sense of in-group/out-group, high sense of personal obligation to in-group members and low or no obligation to out-group members Private life is invaded by groups

10 GAVINS STATE OF MIND OHT 10 GAVIN I was beginning to feel that I was pushing water uphill. GAVIN I mean, it was easy getting Morel to this stage…everyone on my team in England was singing from the same song sheet. But here, we had rock, jazz, classical…you name it … everyone brought their own piece of music with them… DARREN A chance to lead an international team… Think of the challenge, Gavin… GAVIN Im thinking of the headaches! A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

11 HIGH v LOW CONTEXT OHT 11 A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES TEXT CONTEXT message Higher ContextLower Context

12 HIGH v LOW CONTEXT OHT 12 HIGH CONTEXT Belief: Appropriate communication depends on decoding the situation, the relationship, the non-verbal behaviour (the context), so we should invest time in getting to know people to communicate efficiently using a shared code. Loosely based on the concepts of Edward T. Hall A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES LOW CONTEXT Belief: Appropriate communication depends on using concrete logical, unambiguous task-orientated language (the text), so we should be explicit and transparent (personal relationships are nice but not necessary).

13 High Context OHT 13 A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES Low Context Mexico The Middle East Philippines Brazil India Singapore Greece France Austria Scandinavia Israel Swiss Germans Japan, Indonesia Africa (all) China Malaysia Spain Italy Costa Rica England Australia USA Germany The Netherlands

14 COMMUNICATION MEDIA OHT 14 Telephone (including conference calls) Video conference Answering machines/voice mail Face-to-face meetings SMS Fax Groupware (eg discussion forums) A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

15 FEEDBACK ORIENTATIONS OHT 15 HIGHER CONTEXT Problem is a We issue – no finger pointing Relationship focus is high Feedback to be delivered in higher context mode Indirect/implicit language Face saving important A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES LOWER CONTEXT I have a problem with You issue Task focus is high Feedback delivered within message Direct/explicit language Clarity important

16 EXAMPLE 1 OHT 16 From: X To: Y CC: Subject: Urgent problem Dear…, Im very rushed, so I need to keep the information very short and direct. Im sorry, but Im very disappointed and unsatisfied with the way you are working on this project. It does not meet at all the criteria we agreed upon from the start. You really need to do this in a much more professional way and according to our goals and criteria. Otherwise we really have a problem. I suggest that we will have a talk tomorrow. Then I will explain clearly what I mean, in case you dont know yet, but Im sure you are aware. Speak to you tomorrow at A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

17 EXAMPLE 2 OHT 17 From: X To: Y CC: Subject: A request I had problems with my s for the past few weeks and I lost several of them. Could it be possible for you to send me again the information you have about the project X? Im sorry for the inconvenience. Regards A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

18 EXAMPLE 3 OHT 18 From: X To: Y CC: Subject: A slight worry… Dear …, Im a little concerned on the basis of my recent experience that we might be missing some important information from your area We all agree that it was critical to share information comprehensively and quickly. Can I perhaps suggest we meet on… to discuss a way forward? Thanks A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

19 BRITISH INDIRECTNESS OHT 19 From: X To: Y CC: Subject: A slight worry… Dear …, Im a little concerned on the basis of my recent experience that we might be missing some important information from your area We all agree that it was critical to share information comprehensively and quickly. Can I perhaps suggest we meet on… to discuss a way forward? Thanks A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

20 GAVINS TO ALBERTO AND EVA OHT 20 From: Gavin To: Alberto; Eva CC: Darren; Jack; Mohammed; Jesse Subject: A slight hitch with the Market Research Dear Alberto and Eva Thank you for your input, however, there seems to be a bit of a problem with the European market research. I think we might want to consider cooling some of the marketing activities until everything is OK. Ill be in touch soon. All the best Gavin A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

21 EMOTIONAL IMPACT OF CULTURE SHOCK OHT 21 Anxiety Disconfirmed expectations Exclusion Ambiguity Confrontation with ones prejudices Based on Richard Brislin A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES


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