2King of Europe??? Philip became king of Spain in 1556. Spanish possessions included Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples, Tunis, lands in the Americas, and a variety of Mediterranean islands.1580: Portugal is inherited by Philip.Philip saw himself as an international figure.
3Philip the PiusPhilip saw himself as the leader of the international crusade to promote Catholicism and stomp out all non-Catholics (included Arabian Muslims, Protestants, Jews, even the Moriscos)
4Philip the CarelessPhilip was so consumed with leading the international Catholic counteroffensive that the economic and material interests of Spanish society deteriorated during his reign.
5Golden Age of SpainDespite huge military expenditures, Spanish power and culture flourished.Undoubtedly the strongest navy until 1588Spanish cultural renaissance led by Sp. HumanistsCervantes – “Don Quixote”Lope de Vega – 700 dramasLots of art – El Greco, Murillo, Valazquez
6EscorialPhilip built a new palace/monestary/mausoleum 30 miles from Madrid on a bleak arid plateau of central Castille -- Escorial.Built in honor of St. Lawrence, (won a battle against France on his feast day).Shaped like a grill, since St. Lawrence was roasted alive (a martyr).Filled with monks and family coffinsBy 1600, 1/3 of the population of Spain was employed in service to the Catholic church.
18Apparent Successes of Philip II 1567: Duke of Alva sent to suppress religious /political dissidents in the Netherlands.1569: Revolt of the Mariscos in Spain put down.1569: Philip supported a revolt of Catholics in N. England; Pope excommunicated Elizabeth I and absolved her subjects from obedience to her.
19More Successes? 1571: Spain won the Battle of Lepanto 1572: Philip supported the St. Barts day massacre in France
21Revolt in the Netherlands Political, Religious, and Economic1566: 200 noblemen founded a league to “check” Spanish influence in Neth.Petitioned Philip to leave the Neth. out of its inquisition, but Philip refusedIn Response, a mass revolt of the lower classes broke out, razing 400 Catholic churches, etc.Philip sent in the Inquisition under the Duke of Alva
22Netherlands, cont.Will of Orange rallied the Dutch to fight Spain, and a small war broke out.1576: Prot. and Cath. joined to fight Philip1578: England openly supported DutchBUT----the Spanish bribed the S. territories and they joined Spain against the N.1581: N. Dutch declared complete independence.Fighting didn’t completely end until 1609
23EnglandPhilip married Mary I to become King of England and helped bring the inquisition there.After her death, he wanted to either marry or kill Elizabeth to remain king.Spain was involved in several plots to put Mary Stuart on the throne.Mary’s execution led to the attack of the Spanish Armada.
24Spanish Armada1587: As the Sp. Armada was amassing in Cadiz harbor, Drake sailed in and burned the ships (Singeing the king’s beard)1588: The new armada (130 ships) sailed carrying 30,000 men and 2,400 pieces of artillery.planned to sail to the Neth. and then cross the channel to defeat England.
25Spanish ArmadaMet by 200 English ships in the channel led by Drake and Lord Howard of Effingham.Eng. Ships smaller, lighter, faster, and well-armed with guns.Used fireshipsProtestant wind blew the Spanish north around the tip of Scotland and N. Ireland, killing most of the crews.Major setback from which Spain never really recovered.
30Foreign Effects Spain loses maritime dominance England gains control of the seasBritish East India Company founded--16001609: Netherlands officially splitN = United Provinces (Netherlands)S = Sp. Netherlands (Belgium)1602: Dutch East India Company founded1607/1612: Settlements in Virginia & New Netherlands
31Spanish EffectsBy 1600, monarchy living day to day, economically, always waiting for the next treasure from the Indies to make ends meet.Production was down, and the econ. Was weakened by inflation, taxation, emigration, and depopulationEx. Seville: 16,000 looms in 1500; 400 in 1600
32More Spanish EffectsToo many crusades left Spain with lots of minor aristocrats and church personnel who were very haughty and didn’t contribute much to the economy.: 280,000 Moriscos expelled (best farmers and skilled artisans)1640: Portuguese independenceHapsburg mental problems added to the difficulties