Presentation on theme: "Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556-1598). el Escorial."— Presentation transcript:
Imperial Spain and Philip II (r )
Revolt in the Netherlands
Habsburg History Charles V ( ) –Born in Ghent, Belgium in 1500; inherits Low Countries 1515 –Seen as one of their own Philip II inherits 1556 – but he is SPANISH! and CATHOLIC! therefore resented –Calvinism strong in Netherlands –Philip – great defender of Catholic faith - tries to root out Calvinism by force (Spanish Inquisition & Spanish troops)
Dutch Revolt Philip makes his sister Margaret, regent – Cardinal Granvelle, head councilor –But Calvinists angry and attack Antwerp: churches, libraries, statues, altars destroyed William of Orange (the Silent) & Count of Egmont –(German – but has estates in Netherlands) – organizes Calvinist province leaders against Spanish; war at sea (Dutch, Danes, Scots & English)
Duke of Alba –Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, duke of Alba, who was appointed captain-general of the Netherlands The Duke of Alba presiding over the Council of Troubles
Calvinist Dutch privateers, known the Sea Beggars, assault the port of Brill in April 1572 during the Netherlands revolt against Spanish domination. The Sea Beggars, who used their shallow draft boats to effectively control important waterways, were a significant factor in the success of the Dutch Revolt. "Dutch Revolt." Image. Hulton Archive. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, Web. 12 Sept
Unity broken –William of Orange and friends hold 7 northern provinces – establish the Union of Utrecht, deny Spanish control –Southern provinces form Catholic union, Union of Arras, and accept Spanish control July 1584, William of Orange assassinated
Map 15.1 The Netherlands, 1578–1609
Elizabeth and Phillip Elizabeth I, Queen of England – dilemma: –either help Protestants thereby antagonizing Philip –or not help, but Spain might invade England if they gain Netherlands
Elizabeth's Reasons for Helping the Dutch War in Low Countries hurt English economy. Murder of William the Silent eliminated a great protestant leader and a check on Phillips forces. Collapse of the Low countries would mean a Catholic sweep Fear of Spanish Invasion of England.
Philips Marriage Proposal, 1560 Philip had been married to Mary Tudor and had the title King of England. On Marys death in 1558, he hoped to keep England within the Spanish sphere of influence by marrying her sister, Elizabeth. Philip tried to woo Elizabeth by sending her gifts..... Protestant Elizabeth would not marry Catholic Philip. Knowing that he wanted to get control of England, Elizabeth ordered her navy to prepare to fight Spain in the future. Her ships would be well equipped and her sailors well trained over the years to come.
Philip II & Mary I (Tudor)
Francis Drake Since the 1560s, Spanish settlements in South America and Spanish treasure ships had been attacked by English sailors such as Francis Drake and Elizabeth secretly encouraged them.
Spanish Armada In 1587 King Philip II of Spain drew up plans for war against Queen Elizabeth. A huge fleet, or armada of 130 ships was to sail up the English Channel to the Netherlands. It would be joined by an army of 30,000 men and take them to the English coast. Where they would land and invade England returning it to the Catholic religion. The Armada left Lisbon in May 1588, but ran into a storm and lost supplies. The English fleet, led by Lord Howard and Sir Francis Drake, attacked the Armada on 21 July near Plymouth. They tried to escape but knew they were trapped and decided to drop anchor near Calais harbour. That night Drake and Howard sent eight fire ships towards Calais harbour. The Spaniards were afraid and cut their anchor ropes and fled out to sea. When the battle began the Spaniards were already beginning to fall. The English destroyed four Spanish ships and damaged many more. The Spaniards were beaten but their only way home was to sail right round the north of Scotland and into the Atlantic Ocean. Just 60 ships made it back to Spain.
The Netherlands... after the revolt 1609 revolt ends – Union of Utrecht becomes United Provinces (aka Dutch Republic) but do not gain independence from Spain until 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia (end of 30 Years War)