5Habsburg History Charles V (1515-1556) Born in Ghent, Belgium in 1500; inherits Low Countries 1515Seen as one of their ownPhilip II inherits 1556 – but he is SPANISH! and CATHOLIC! therefore resentedCalvinism strong in NetherlandsPhilip – great defender of Catholic faith - tries to root out Calvinism by force (Spanish Inquisition & Spanish troops)Life at home was also difficult. Philip's first wife, Maria, had died in 1545 after giving birth to a son, Don Carlos. Philip next married Queen Mary I of England, a marriage arranged by his father in an attempt to turn Protestant England back to Catholicism. After Mary died in 1558, Philip married Elizabeth of Valois, the daughter of Henry II of France. She died in childbirth in Added to this misfortune was the insanity of Don Carlos, whom Philip eventually had to confine after he tried to knife his father's ministers.
6Dutch RevoltPhilip makes his sister Margaret, regent – Cardinal Granvelle, head councilorBut Calvinists angry and attack Antwerp: churches, libraries, statues, altars destroyedWilliam of Orange (“the Silent”) & Count of Egmont(German – but has estates in Netherlands) – organizes Calvinist province leaders against Spanish; war at sea (Dutch, Danes, Scots & English)
7Duke of AlbaFernando Álvarez de Toledo, duke of Alba, who was appointed captain-general of the NetherlandsMargaret opposed the duke of Alba's aggressively repressive policies, which included the implementation of the Inquisition and the establishment of the Council of Troubles (known to the Dutch as the Council of Blood) to restore order. But, unable to restrain the captain, Margaret resigned her position as regent and returned to Italy that same year, leaving the duke of Alba as her successor.The Duke of Alba presiding over the Council of Troubles
8Calvinist Dutch privateers, known the Sea Beggars, assault the port of Brill in April 1572 during the Netherlands revolt against Spanish domination. The Sea Beggars, who used their shallow draft boats to effectively control important waterways, were a significant factor in the success of the Dutch Revolt."Dutch Revolt." Image. Hulton Archive. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, Web. 12 Sept <http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/>
9Unity broken July 1584, William of Orange assassinated William of Orange and friends hold 7 northern provinces –establish the Union of Utrecht, deny Spanish controlSouthern provinces form Catholic union, Union of Arras, and accept Spanish controlJuly 1584, William of Orange assassinatedIssued in 1581 in the midst of the Dutch Revolt, the Dutch Declaration of Independence was the first of such documents in modern times. It clearly endorsed the idea that rulers had responsibilities toward their subjects and could be rightly deposed by their subjects if they failed in those responsibilities. Although not well remembered today, the Dutch Declaration of Independence served as a model for later revolutionary leaders.
11Elizabeth and Phillip Elizabeth I, Queen of England – dilemma: either help Protestants thereby antagonizing Philipor not help, but Spain might invade England if they gain Netherlands
12Elizabeth's Reasons for Helping the Dutch War in Low Countries hurt English economy.Murder of William the Silent eliminated a great protestant leader and a check on Phillip’s forces.Collapse of the Low countries would mean a Catholic “sweep”Fear of Spanish Invasion of England.
13Philip’s Marriage Proposal, 1560 Philip had been married to Mary Tudor and had the title ‘King of England’. On Mary’s death in 1558, he hoped to keep England within the Spanish sphere of influence by marrying her sister, Elizabeth. Philip tried to woo Elizabeth by sending her giftsProtestant Elizabeth would not marry Catholic Philip. Knowing that he wanted to get control of England, Elizabeth ordered her navy to prepare to fight Spain in the future. Her ships would be well equipped and her sailors well trained over the years to come.
15Robbing the Spanish Francis Drake Since the 1560’s, Spanish settlements in South America and Spanish treasure ships had been attacked by English sailors such as Francis Drake and Elizabeth secretly encouraged them.
18Spanish ArmadaIn 1587 King Philip II of Spain drew up plans for war against Queen Elizabeth. A huge fleet, or armada of 130 ships was to sail up the English Channel to the Netherlands. It would be joined by an army of 30,000 men and take them to the English coast. Where they would land and invade England returning it to the Catholic religion. The Armada left Lisbon in May 1588, but ran into a storm and lost supplies. The English fleet, led by Lord Howard and Sir Francis Drake, attacked the Armada on 21 July near Plymouth. They tried to escape but knew they were trapped and decided to drop anchor near Calais harbour. That night Drake and Howard sent eight fire ships towards Calais harbour. The Spaniards were afraid and cut their anchor ropes and fled out to sea. When the battle began the Spaniards were already beginning to fall. The English destroyed four Spanish ships and damaged many more. The Spaniards were beaten but their only way home was to sail right round the north of Scotland and into the Atlantic Ocean. Just 60 ships made it back to Spain.
20The Netherlands . . . after the revolt 1609 revolt ends – Union of Utrecht becomes “United Provinces” (aka Dutch Republic) but do not gain independence from Spain until 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia (end of 30 Years’ War)