2Section VocabularyHapsburg Empire: Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands (Germany)Absolute monarch: ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the peopleDivine right: belief that the authority to rule comes directly from GodArmada: naval fleet
3Charles V—2 crowns?1516: grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles I, inherits the Spanish throne1519: Charles also inherits the throne of the Holy Roman Empire (Germany)Charles takes the name Charles V and is more commonly known this way
4Problems with having two empires: Religion: Charles was a Catholic and fought to suppress ProtestantismOttoman Empire: advances and occupation of Southeastern EuropeEventually, the empire becomes too difficult to rule and Charles gives up the thrones.His brother becomes Holy Roman Empire, while his son, Philip becomes the king of Spain.
5Philip II solidifies power Centralizing Power: reigned as an absolute monarch who believed in divine right and desired to defend the Catholic ReformationBattles in the Mediterranean and the Netherlands: Philip was forced to fight many battles in order to defend Catholicism in these Protestant or Muslim areas
6The Defeat of the Spanish The Armada sails against England: Queen Elizabeth I of England was Philip’s most powerful Protestant enemy.She also encouraged the attacks of sea captains on Spanish ships to steal gold.In 1588, Philip assembled a huge armada to invade England (130 ships, 20,000 men, and 2,400 pieces of artillery).However, the smaller English shipswere able to out maneuver thoseof Spain and they defeated theSpanish fleet.
7An Empire DeclinesThe defeat of the Spanish fleet marked the beginning of the decline of Spanish power.Philip II’s successors were not good rulers.Economic problems—costly overseas ventures, neglect of farming and commerce in favor of gold and silverDepletion of workforce due to the expulsion of Muslims and Jews from Spain
8Spain’s Golden Age:While Spain was at its height politically and economically, it was also leading the way in culture.Painters: El Greco and VelasquezWriters: Miguel Cervantes writes Don Quixote (first modern novel)