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Philip II and the Counter Reformation

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1 Philip II and the Counter Reformation
Section 3.14 Philip II and the Counter Reformation

2 Questions to consider Why could Philip II rightly regard himself as an international figure? Why was Spain ideally suited to be the instrument of Philip’s ambitions? How would you describe and characterize the general state of political and religious affairs in Europe in the first years of Philip’s reign? What conflict existed between religious and national loyalties? How permanent were the triumphs of Philip and of the Catholic cause in the years 1567 to 1572? Explain the political, economic, and religious issues that entered into the revolt of the Netherlands. How did the revolt merge with the international political and religious struggles in Europe? How would you analyze the reasons for Spain’s decline?

3 How did there come to be two Hapsburgs?
Charles V abdicated 1556 Moved to a monastery Divided holdings between son and brother Ferdinand (bro) Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and HRE Philip II (son) Spain, New World, Spanish Netherlands, Burgundy, Milan, Naples, Tunis Briefly king of Portugal and England Hapsburgs now divided between Austrian and Spanish domains Ferdinand I Philip II

4 Note the position of France

5 Who was Philip II (1556-1598) and why was his rule considered a Golden Age?
Fanatically Catholic Grave, somber, dark, brooding man ABOVE ALL ELSE, Committed to upholding the universal Catholic Church above Gave no thought to economic, material loss 33% of population in service of Church (1600) Ultimately this would lead to Spain’s decline Ruled during Siglo de Oro ( ) The Century of Gold (Golden Age) Cervantes-Don Quixote El Greco WebMuseum: Greco, El art represents a blend of passion and restraint, religious fervor and Neo-Platonism, influenced by the mysticism of the Counter-Reformation.

6 El Greco

7 The Escorial A palace, monastery and mausoleum 30 miles from Madrid
Bleak, arid plateau of central Castile Layout in form of grill Honoring St. Lawrence (roasted alive in 258 AD) Coffins of father, dead wives, children relocated there Lived in Spartan fashion

8 What was the general state of political and religious affairs in Europe in the first years of Philip’s reign? Catholic Offensive 1567 Philip sent Duke of Alva & 20 thousand soldiers to suppress Netherlands Brutally put down revolt of Moriscos Kept Turks at bay in Mediterranean Encouraged Catholics in England to rebel against Elizabeth Approved of St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of Huguenots None of these proved lasting Fernando Alvarez, Duke of Alva (


10 Revolt of the Netherlands
Germanic (Dutch) in North Fishing industry, strong Protestant presence French South Comprised of 17 provinces (including Luxembourg) Hatred of Philip’s rule unites regions League of Nobles (200) Petition Philip to keep Inquisition out Philip refuses==revolts Sends troops, Inquisition, Council of Troubles Known as Council of Blood Executed thousands, confiscated estates, taxed population William of Orange A stadholder (soon to become hereditary title, was a leader of provinces of Netherlands) Known as “The Silent” Mobilized anti-Spanish forces at sea Encourages Danes, Scots, English, Dutch to pirate Spanish ships

11 Involvement of England
Elizabeth quietly supports protestants in Netherlands Mary “Queen of Scots” Great granddaughter of Henry VIII Was queen of France (husband died), Queen of Scotland (driven out by Calvinists) Imprisoned by Elizabeth (suspicious of her intrigue) Don Juan’s Plot (Babington Plot) Was hero at battle of Lepanto (defeated Turks) Half brother to Philip Wanted to conquer Nether, invaded England, marry Mary, place her on throne, and rule England as King Died before his plot came to fruition Mary beheaded Letters supporting the plot discovered Reburied by her son, James I

12 Involvement of England Continued
Parma becomes new leader after Don Juan in 1578 Promises liberties to moderates, zealous Catholics tired of mob violence Northern provinces (led by Holland and Zeeland) declare independence under Union of Utrecht in 1579 (renamed United Provinces of Netherlands in 1581) Parma moves against Antwerp forces Elizabeth to openly side with Holland Philip prepares to invade

13 The Spanish Armada (1588) Sir Francis Drake
Great armada or armada catolica Fleet of mixed nationalities plan was to sail to Netherlands and take Parmas’ army to England English met the Armada in the English Channel with 200 ships Sir Francis Drake Stalwart and nimble English vessels out maneuvered the Spanish galleons Refuge in Calais was lost to “fire ships” “Protestant Winds” from south to north pushed the Spanish into unfamiliar waters Retreat around northern British Isles was catastrophic Complete victory for the English is realized and the ascendancy of England begins

14 Spanish Armada and the Protestant Wind
Sir Francis Drake


16 Results of the Struggle
Philip II died (of cancer) in 1598 a broken man England’s national spirit is emerging under Protestantism and set out to conqueror the seas The Netherlands are divided north and south North (7 provinces) becomes Protestant, tolerant, close the Scheldt, and emerge as a rising commercial force at sea and in banking South (10 provinces) becomes Catholic, is in ruins (40 yrs of war), and little help is forthcoming from Spain called Spanish Netherlands (Belgium today) Spain is imploding, financial dependence on New World wealth is becoming desperate, and leadership was directed toward Catholic affairs rather than Spain’s need Final blow to Spain is the line of incompetent kings that follow Philip


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