Presentation on theme: "Philip II and the Counter Reformation"— Presentation transcript:
1Philip II and the Counter Reformation Section 3.14Philip II and the Counter Reformation
2Questions to considerWhy could Philip II rightly regard himself as an international figure? Why was Spain ideally suited to be the instrument of Philip’s ambitions?How would you describe and characterize the general state of political and religious affairs in Europe in the first years of Philip’s reign? What conflict existed between religious and national loyalties?How permanent were the triumphs of Philip and of the Catholic cause in the years 1567 to 1572?Explain the political, economic, and religious issues that entered into the revolt of the Netherlands. How did the revolt merge with the international political and religious struggles in Europe?How would you analyze the reasons for Spain’s decline?
3How did there come to be two Hapsburgs? Charles V abdicated 1556Moved to a monasteryDivided holdings between son and brotherFerdinand (bro)Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and HREPhilip II (son)Spain, New World, Spanish Netherlands, Burgundy, Milan, Naples, TunisBriefly king of Portugal and EnglandHapsburgs now divided between Austrian and Spanish domainsFerdinand IPhilip II
5Who was Philip II (1556-1598) and why was his rule considered a Golden Age? Fanatically CatholicGrave, somber, dark, brooding manABOVE ALL ELSE, Committed to upholding the universal Catholic Church aboveGave no thought to economic, material loss33% of population in service of Church (1600)Ultimately this would lead to Spain’s declineRuled during Siglo de Oro ( )The Century of Gold (Golden Age)Cervantes-Don QuixoteEl Greco WebMuseum: Greco, Elart represents a blend of passion and restraint, religious fervor and Neo-Platonism, influenced by the mysticism of the Counter-Reformation.
7The Escorial A palace, monastery and mausoleum 30 miles from Madrid Bleak, arid plateau of central CastileLayout in form of grillHonoring St. Lawrence (roasted alive in 258 AD)Coffins of father, dead wives, children relocated thereLived in Spartan fashion
8What was the general state of political and religious affairs in Europe in the first years of Philip’s reign?Catholic Offensive1567 Philip sent Duke of Alva & 20 thousand soldiers to suppress NetherlandsBrutally put down revolt of MoriscosKept Turks at bay in MediterraneanEncouraged Catholics in England to rebel against ElizabethApproved of St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of HuguenotsNone of these proved lastingFernando Alvarez, Duke of Alva (
10Revolt of the Netherlands Germanic (Dutch) in NorthFishing industry, strong Protestant presenceFrench SouthComprised of 17 provinces (including Luxembourg)Hatred of Philip’s rule unites regionsLeague of Nobles (200)Petition Philip to keep Inquisition outPhilip refuses==revoltsSends troops, Inquisition, Council of TroublesKnown as Council of BloodExecuted thousands, confiscated estates, taxed populationWilliam of OrangeA stadholder (soon to become hereditary title, was a leader of provinces of Netherlands)Known as “The Silent”Mobilized anti-Spanish forces at seaEncourages Danes, Scots, English, Dutch to pirate Spanish ships
11Involvement of England Elizabeth quietly supports protestants in NetherlandsMary “Queen of Scots”Great granddaughter of Henry VIIIWas queen of France (husband died), Queen of Scotland (driven out by Calvinists)Imprisoned by Elizabeth (suspicious of her intrigue)Don Juan’s Plot (Babington Plot)Was hero at battle of Lepanto (defeated Turks)Half brother to PhilipWanted to conquer Nether, invaded England, marry Mary, place her on throne, and rule England as KingDied before his plot came to fruitionMary beheadedLetters supporting the plot discoveredReburied by her son, James I
12Involvement of England Continued Parma becomes new leader after Don Juan in 1578Promises liberties to moderates, zealous Catholics tired of mob violenceNorthern provinces (led by Holland and Zeeland) declare independence under Union of Utrecht in 1579 (renamed United Provinces of Netherlands in 1581)Parma moves against Antwerp forces Elizabeth to openly side with HollandPhilip prepares to invade
13The Spanish Armada (1588) Sir Francis Drake Great armada or armada catolicaFleet of mixed nationalitiesplan was to sail to Netherlands and take Parmas’ army to EnglandEnglish met the Armada in the English Channel with 200 shipsSir Francis DrakeStalwart and nimble English vessels out maneuvered the Spanish galleonsRefuge in Calais was lost to “fire ships”“Protestant Winds” from south to north pushed the Spanish into unfamiliar watersRetreat around northern British Isles was catastrophicComplete victory for the English is realized and the ascendancy of England begins
14Spanish Armada and the Protestant Wind Sir Francis Drake
16Results of the Struggle Philip II died (of cancer) in 1598 a broken manEngland’s national spirit is emerging under Protestantism and set out to conqueror the seasThe Netherlands are divided north and southNorth (7 provinces) becomes Protestant, tolerant, close the Scheldt, and emerge as a rising commercial force at sea and in bankingSouth (10 provinces) becomes Catholic, is in ruins (40 yrs of war), and little help is forthcoming from Spaincalled Spanish Netherlands (Belgium today)Spain is imploding, financial dependence on New World wealth is becoming desperate, and leadership was directed toward Catholic affairs rather than Spain’s needFinal blow to Spain is the line of incompetent kings that follow Philip