2Describe Spanish power under Phillip II-background The Spanish Empire was under the control of the Hapsburg KingsCharles V inherited an empire including Spain, colonies in America, parts of Italy, and lands in Austria and the Netherlands.Charles was a devout Catholic and opposed Muslims and Lutherans.In 1555, he agreed to the Peace of Augsburg-princes decided their own religionsWhen he died he left his brother Ferdinand Austria and the Holy Roman Empire.Charles V
4Describe Spanish power under Phillip II Charles son Phillip II inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands and the American colonies.He gained control of the Portugal and the their empire in 1580.
5Describe Spanish power under Phillip II The empire had incredible wealth.By 1600, American mines had supplied Spain with an estimated 339,000 pounds of gold.The great gold and silver reserves permitted Spain to have a standing army of 50,000 soldiers.Phillip II was also a great defender of the Catholic faith.
6Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588 In 1588, Phillip launched the Spanish Armada in an attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Elizabeth I. Elizabeth had supported Protestant subjects who had rebelled against Phillip.This event was a major setback for Spain in which it never would truly return. It did continue to have wealth, power and influence in the future, but not what it might have had otherwise.
8Identify major figures from the Golden Age of Spanish art and literature El Greco-Domenikos TheotokopoulosHis name means “the Greek”His art often used clashing colors, distorted human figure and expressed emotion symbolicallyThe Catholic faith was found in his work-he often painted huge, long-limbed figures of saints and martyrs
9Identify major figures from the Golden Age of Spanish art and literature The Dormition of the VirginPortrait of an Old Man
10Diego Velazquez Another well known Spanish painter Court painter for Philip IVBest known for portraits of the royal family and court life
11Identify major figures from the Golden Age of Spanish art and literature Diego VelazquezThe Surrender of Breda
12Identify major figures from the Golden Age of Spanish art and literature Miguel de Cervantes is well known for Don Quixote de la ManchaIt is considered by many the first of the modern European novel
13Describe the birth of the Netherlands Spain had been weakened by a series of issues:-inflation-the expelling of the Jews and Muslims led to the loss of many artisans and business people-the nobles did not pay taxes-Spain did not have a middle class-Spain borrowed money it could not pay back
14Describe the birth of the Netherlands The Spanish and the Netherlands had little in common:The Spanish were Catholic, Dutch protestant (Calvinists)The Spanish economy was poor, the Dutch had a strong middle classPhillip raised taxes in the Netherlands and attempted to crush ProtestantismOn 1568, the Duke of Alva executed 1500 Protestants and suspected rebelsIn 1579, the United Provinces of the Netherlands was declared independent. The ten southern provinces (today’s Belgium) were Catholic and remained under Spanish control
15Describe the birth of the Netherlands What made the Netherlands different?-The people practiced religious tolerance-The area was not a kingdom but a republic with each province with an elected governor-It had a strong middle class and solid economy-They had the world’s largest fleet-They also had the Dutch East India Company that dominated the Asian spice and Indian trade-They also had significant artists
16Rembradt van RijnThe NightwatchSelf Portrait (1641)
18Explain the origins of absolute monarchy AbsolutismAbsolute monarchy-all powerDivine right-God created the monarchy and the monarch acted as God’s representative on Earth
19Explain the origins of absolute monarchy CAUSES -Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty -The growth of armies to deal with conflicts caused rulers to raise taxes to pay troops -Heavy taxes led to additional unrest and peasant revolts -The new middle class
20Explain the origins of absolute monarchy Effects -Rulers regulated religious worship and social gatherings to control the spread of ideas -Rulers increased the size of their courts to appear more powerful -Rulers created bureaucracies to control their countries’ economies