Presentation on theme: "Philip and Elizabeth The Revolt of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada."— Presentation transcript:
Philip and Elizabeth The Revolt of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada
The goals: Know Philip IIs relationship with Charles V, Mary Tudor and Elizabeth Tudor Describe the Escorial Palace Know the reasons behind the revolt in the Netherlands Did the Spanish Armada succeed in its goal to invade England, Why or why not?
Philip II was the son of Charles V. His father split the Holy Roman Empire between Philip and his uncle.
Philip was married to Henry VIIIs daughter, Mary. Together, they set about making England Catholic again.
Philip was not attracted to Mary, but Mary was in love with him
During Marys five year reign, hundreds of Protestants were burned at the stake, even children younger than ten
Mary will go down in history as Bloody Mary
Philip had to return to Spain to watch over his dominions. Mary died soon afterwards.
Elizabeth inherits the throne
Elizabeths priority was to bring peace and prosperity to her people and end the great religious divisions
In the beginning, Philip tried to be diplomatic with Elizabeth and England
But, over time, Philip resented Elizabeths ruleand Philip himself became leader of the Counter-Reformation
At the same time, Spain entered its Golden Age , a time of great cultural achievement
Philip lost numerous wives to disease and childbirth.
His son, Don Carlos, was held captive when he revolted against his father. He died in captivity.
Philip built a royal residence. It was called the Escorialand was designed on a grill shape, representing the way that St. Lawrence was killed.
It was forbidding, monastic, and became a symbol of austere Catholicism
Philip faced a revolt in the Netherlands, the lands he inherited from his father.
The Netherlands comprised todays Netherlands and Belgium The Netherlands is sometimes called Holland after its largest province.
The Southern Provinces were busy commercial centers. Their center was Antwerp The Northern Provinces had developed a loose federation
There were 17 provinces altogether
As France began to clamp down its protestant population the Calvinists headed for the Netherlands for protection
These Protestants brought with them the Calvinist attitude that the state did not have supreme allegiance of its people A league of 200 nobles was formed to stop Spanish Influence and prevent an inquisition in their country
An inquisition in the Netherlands would be disastrousas, unlike Spain, there is a growing Protestant Population
Philips representatives refuse to listen. The inquisition begins. As a result...The Dutch revolt!
Catholic churches are pillaged and destroyed as people revolted against the Spanish domination
Philip sends in the Duke of Alva with select Spanish Troops into the Southern Netherlands
Alvas Council of Troubles sentences thousands to death. He punishes the nobles.
These measures only unite the people against a common enemy: Philip and Spain
William of Orange, the royal house of Holland, emerges as a leader
William invited the Protestant countries to help harass the Spanish He authorized ships to harass or pirate Spanish ships, to raid Spanish occupied ports. By 1576 opposition to the Spanish superseded the differences between the provinces
Englands role in the revolt of the Netherlands
Elizabeths reign strengthened. But she did not marry. She did not name a direct heir until she was near death in 1603.
Elizabeth had a cousin, Mary Stuart, who inherited the throne of Scotland. She was young and foolish. She grew up in France.
After returning to Scotland, she married her first cousin and had a baby boy. This boy would eventually become James I of England and Scotland
Mary made many mistakes in her brief reign. Her husband was murdered, and she married his suspected murder.
The Scottish Protestants, led by John Knox, were dismayed by Marys Catholicism and her instability. They wanted her out of the kingdom.
Eventually, Mary Queen of Scots fled to England. Baby James remained in Scotland to be raised a Protestant. He would be raised to be Protestant.
Mary Queen of Scots remained under house arrest in England for 19 years
But while she lived, she remained a rallying point for all English Catholics
Don Juan, half brother of Philip II, hatched a plan to invade England and put Mary on the throne as an Catholic ruler
Elizabeth and quietly aided the Netherlands in past years, but now she signs an alliance with the Netherlands
English and Dutch raiders continue to pirate and pillage the rich Spanish Treasure ships
William the Silent is assassinated by agents of Philip II in 1584.
Don Juan dies, and now the Duke of Parma comes to the Netherlands Elizabeth continues to face a few internal threats, including the Ridolfi plot (which was in the movie Elizabeth ). All of these plots have the goal of returning the Catholic faith to the throne of England
The Duke of Parma splits the 17 provinces. The southern provinces agree to support the Spanish These Southern Provinces become the Spanish Netherlandswhich in time will become the Austrian Netherlands, which in time becomes todays BELGUIM
The seven northern provinces become the UNION of UTRECHT in They will become the United Provinces and declare their independence in 1581.
Both sides wanted to attack the other and claim it back. Spain wanted to conquer and bring back the North under its control The United Provinces wanted to retain the Southern Provinces.
The Duke of Parma moves on Antwerp Elizabeth sends 6,000 troops to the North to prepare to attack
Word reaches England that Philip is preparing a great fleet of ships to attack England The Duke of Parma will cross over from Antwerp and also attack. With England returned to Catholicism, Spain can then subdue the revolt in the Netherlands
As the Armada is built, time runs out for Mary Stuart. She had participated in one too many plots. She was executed at Fothringham castle in 1587
England prepares for attack Sir Francis Drake is sent to raid and burn as many ships as he can. He succeeds by raiding the Spanish port of Cadiz. This sets preparations back a year.
The Armada is ready! In 1588, the Armada sets sail from Spain to England
One of historys famous stories...
The Armada ships 30,000 men (50,000 also waiting in the Spanish Netherlands) 2,400 canons
The English are commanded by Sir Francis Drake Legend has it that he said he had time enough to finish bowling, and defeat the Armada.
The Armada is picked off bit by bit, and mother nature does the rest
Philip is defeated, Elizabeth reigns supreme
Philip dies a long and painful death in Elizabeth dies in An era ends
The Results: England England gains great national pride and love of their country. England begins to rule the waves.
The Results: Netherlands The Spanish Netherlands are ruined when the United Provinces (the Dutch) block the mouth of the Scheldt---For the next TWO CENTURIES!
The United Provinces move toward a Golden Age, which we will soon learn about
The Results: Spain Spain remains a great power It is weakening internally, highly dependant on gold/silver from the New World Able Spaniards are siphoned off for church positions Portugal and Catalonia re-establish independence
In Spain, the Moriscos (Muslim descent) are driven out- Spain loses an industrious minority
The Dutch become independent in We will meet them again after the Religious Wars.
You should now know these things: Know Philip IIs relationship with Charles V, Mary Tudor and Elizabeth Tudor Describe the Escorial Palace Know the reasons behind the revolt in the Netherlands Did the Spanish Armada succeed in its goal to invade England, Why or why not?