Presentation on theme: "The Revolt of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Revolt of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada Philip and ElizabethThe Revolt of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada
2 The goals:Know Philip II’s relationship with Charles V, Mary Tudor and Elizabeth TudorDescribe the Escorial PalaceKnow the reasons behind the revolt in the NetherlandsDid the Spanish Armada succeed in its goal to invade England, Why or why not?
3 Philip II was the son of Charles V Philip II was the son of Charles V. His father split the Holy Roman Empire between Philip and his uncle.
4 Philip was married to Henry VIII’s daughter, Mary Philip was married to Henry VIII’s daughter, Mary. Together, they set about making England Catholic again.
5 Philip was not attracted to Mary, but Mary was in love with him
6 During Mary’s five year reign, hundreds of Protestants were burned at the stake, even children younger than ten
24 As France began to clamp down its protestant population—the Calvinists headed for the Netherlands for protection
25 These Protestants brought with them the Calvinist attitude that the state did not have supreme allegiance of its peopleA league of 200 nobles was formed to stop Spanish Influence—and prevent an inquisition in their country
26 An inquisition in the Netherlands would be disastrous—as, unlike Spain, there is a growing Protestant Population
27 Philip’s representatives refuse to listen. The inquisition begins. As a result. . .The Dutch revolt!
29 Catholic churches are pillaged and destroyed as people revolted against the Spanish domination
30 Philip sends in the Duke of Alva with select Spanish Troops into the Southern Netherlands
31 Alva’s Council of Troubles sentences thousands to death Alva’s Council of Troubles sentences thousands to death. He punishes the nobles.
32 These measures only unite the people against a common enemy: Philip and Spain
33 William of Orange, the royal house of Holland, emerges as a leader
34 William invited the Protestant countries to help harass the Spanish He authorized ships to harass or pirate Spanish ships, to raid Spanish occupied ports. By 1576 opposition to the Spanish superseded the differences between the provinces
36 England’s role in the revolt of the Netherlands
37 Elizabeth’s reign strengthened. But she did not marry. She did not name a direct heir until she was near death in 1603.
38 Elizabeth had a cousin, Mary Stuart, who inherited the throne of Scotland. She was young and foolish. She grew up in France.
39 After returning to Scotland, she married her first cousin and had a baby boy. This boy would eventually become James I of England and Scotland
40 Mary made many mistakes in her brief reign Mary made many mistakes in her brief reign. Her husband was murdered, and she married his suspected murder.
41 The Scottish Protestants, led by John Knox, were dismayed by Mary’s Catholicism and her instability. They wanted her out of the kingdom.
42 Eventually, Mary Queen of Scots fled to England Eventually, Mary Queen of Scots fled to England. Baby James remained in Scotland to be raised a Protestant. He would be raised to be Protestant.
43 Mary Queen of Scots remained under house arrest in England for 19 years
44 But while she lived, she remained a rallying point for all English Catholics
45 Don Juan, half brother of Philip II, hatched a plan to invade England and put Mary on the throne as an Catholic ruler
46 Elizabeth and quietly aided the Netherlands in past years, but now she signs an alliance with the Netherlands
47 English and Dutch raiders continue to pirate and pillage the rich Spanish Treasure ships
48 William the Silent is assassinated by agents of Philip II in 1584.
49 Don Juan dies, and now the Duke of Parma comes to the Netherlands Elizabeth continues to face a few internal threats, including the Ridolfi plot (which was in the movie Elizabeth). All of these plots have the goal of returning the Catholic faith to the throne of England
50 The Duke of Parma splits the 17 provinces The Duke of Parma splits the 17 provinces. The southern provinces agree to support the SpanishThese Southern Provinces become the Spanish Netherlands—which in time will become the Austrian Netherlands, which in time becomes today’s BELGUIM
51 The seven northern provinces become the UNION of UTRECHT in 1579. They will become the United Provinces and declare their independence in 1581.
52 Both sides wanted to attack the other and claim it back. Spain wanted to conquer and bring back the North under its controlThe United Provinces wanted to retain the Southern Provinces.
53 The Duke of Parma moves on Antwerp—Elizabeth sends 6,000 troops to the North to prepare to attack
54 Word reaches England that Philip is preparing a great fleet of ships to attack England The Duke of Parma will cross over from Antwerp and also attack. With England returned to Catholicism, Spain can then subdue the revolt in the Netherlands
55 She was executed at Fothringham castle in 1587 As the Armada is built, time runs out for Mary Stuart. She had participated in one too many plots.She was executed at Fothringham castle in 1587
66 Philip dies a long and painful death in 1598. Elizabeth dies in 1603 Philip dies a long and painful death in Elizabeth dies in An era ends
67 The Results: EnglandEngland gains great national pride and love of their country. England begins to “rule the waves.”
68 The Results: Netherlands The Spanish Netherlands are ruined when the United Provinces (the Dutch) block the mouth of the Scheldt---For the next TWO CENTURIES!
69 The United Provinces move toward a Golden Age, which we will soon learn about
70 The Results: Spain Spain remains a great power It is weakening internally, highly dependant on gold/silver from the New WorldAble Spaniards are siphoned off for church positionsPortugal and Catalonia re-establish independence
71 In Spain, the Moriscos (Muslim descent) are driven out- Spain loses an industrious minority
72 The Dutch become independent in 1609 The Dutch become independent in We will meet them again after the Religious Wars.
73 You should now know these things: Know Philip II’s relationship with Charles V, Mary Tudor and Elizabeth TudorDescribe the Escorial PalaceKnow the reasons behind the revolt in the NetherlandsDid the Spanish Armada succeed in its goal to invade England, Why or why not?