3Bismarck’s Kulturkampf: Anti-Catholic Program Take education and marriage out of the hands of the clergy civil marriages only recognized.The Jesuits are expelled from Germany.The education of Catholic priests would be under the supervision of the German government.
4Bismarck’s Reapproachment With the Catholic Church Bismarck & Pope Leo XIII
5German Gov’tChancellor- BismarckUpper house -ReichstagBismarck says won’t be bound by parl majority- tariffs won support of industrialists
6Socialism feared revolutionary activity Used fear -attempt on WI life (not socialists) to restrict socialist rightsOutlawed Social Dem Party-organized undergroundBismarck's new tactic…..
7Social reform Win support of workers by Social security laws … National sickness and accident Insurance 18831889 old age pensions/ retirement benefits1st of its kind --- Eng to follow soonResult - they still vote socialist???-Marxist Social Dem party legal again under WIIMany in Reichstag in the 1890’s/ most in 1912
201850s Russia was poor agricultural society 90% of the people lived off the landSerfdom was still the basic institutionEmancipation Edict - in 1861 abolished serfdomMassive investment didn’t even help, but did encourage social reformers
21Modernization of Russia 1850s Russia was poor agricultural society90% of the people lived off the landLacked a solid middle classSerfdom was still the basic institutionVery backward country – over 200 nationalities – majority were poor peasantsMajority under 10 and illiterateintelligensia
22Alexander II [r. 1855-1881] Defeat in the Crimean War. Reform from aboveEmancipation of the Russian serfs [ ].
23Crimean WarBritish and French ill-founded fear of Russian strength: “Russia is the strongest state in Europe!”Illusion of Russian expansionism “Russia plans to carve up Turkey”Ill-founded belief the Turkey was collapsing
24WAKE UP CALLThis defeat marked a turning point for Russia and the start of the Great ReformRussia needed new railroads, better weapons, and a reorganized armyAlexander II told serf owners reform needed to come from aboveEmancipation Edict - in 1861 abolished serfdomEmancipated serfs received about half the land and had 49 years to payThe land was owned by a village (mir) and the village was responsible for individual payments
25The govt. hoped collectivism would create unity In reality it made it hard to progressNo incentive to improve if didn’t ind. ownZemstvos to run local govt. in the rural areasCourts were reformed, equality of law was established, education was liberalized, and censorship relaxed
261870s the Populists wanted more reforms and resorted to terrorism Peoples will
27IndustrializationUntil the 20th century Russia made great progress in industry not politicsAfter 1860 the govt. encouraged and subsidized railway companiesBy 1880 Russia had a well developed rail-equipment industryIndustries grew in the suburbs of Moscow and St. PetersburgIndustrial success strengthened the military as the country expanded south and east1881 Alexander II was assassinated
28Alexander III [r. 1881-1894] Reactionary. Slavophile. “Russification” program.Jews forced migration to the Pale
29Reform ended with Alexander III, a strict reactionary – ruled with iron fist Political modernization froze but economic industrial modernization increased with the industrial surge of the 1890s.Pogroms – RussificationTrans-Siberian railroad
30Sergei Witte, minister of finance Witte saw Russia’s industrial backwardness as a hindrance to Russia’s greatnessHe established tariffs and put the country on the gold standard of the rest of the worldHe used the west to catch the west i.e. foreigners to use their technology and capital to build up southern RussiaIn eastern Ukraine foreigners built huge plants and factories, steel and coal industries from scratchBy 1900 only the US., Germany, and Great Britain were producing more coal/steelSmall middle class develops
33Political Philosophies Liberals wanted reforms based on western modelsMarxists wanted to overthrow the monarchyPopulists wanted a massive peasant revoltAny trouble makers were arrested or forced into exile
34Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in EuropeNo type of representative political institutionsNicholas II became tsar in 1884Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by GodRusso-Japanese War (1904) – defeat led to pol. instabilityPre-Revolutionary Russia
351903 Russia established a sphere of influence over Chinese Manchuria and were looking at northern Korea1904 Japan launched a surprise attack, defeating Russia in the Russo-Japanese War at Port ArthurDistance and size works against Russia and creates further peasant dissent1905 Russia accepted a humiliating defeat
36Revolution of 1905January 1905 a crowd demonstrated at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to petition the tsar for reformTroops opened fire, killing and wounding hundreds. This massacre became known as “Bloody Sunday"
37The image of the tsar was shattered October 1905 a general strike paralyzed the country and forced the govt. to give inThe czar issued the October Manifesto granting full civil liberties and creating the Duma (national representative body)The Social Democrats rejected it and the workers protested in Moscow in December 1905The tsar dismissed the Duma, only to find a more radical one elected in 1907The tsar and his advisors rewrote the voting laws and gave more power to the landed aristocracyWith Duma full of aristocrats the tsar was assured of support
38In 1906 Peter Stolypin was appointed chief advisor August Decree established military courts which hung almost 1,000 peopleWanted to preserve aristocracy but pushed agrarian reformPeasants, even more agitated, were still a caste apartIn 1911 Stolypin was assassinatedThe Revolution of 1905 had changed little in Russia- the tsar still controlled the army and the aristocracy controlled the govt. with the tsar having veto power
39The Ottoman Empire -- Late 19c “The Sicker Man of Europe”