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Mid-19c European Nationalism.

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Presentation on theme: "Mid-19c European Nationalism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mid-19c European Nationalism

2 German Imperial Flag

3 Bismarck’s Kulturkampf: Anti-Catholic Program
Take education and marriage out of the hands of the clergy  civil marriages only recognized. The Jesuits are expelled from Germany. The education of Catholic priests would be under the supervision of the German government.

4 Bismarck’s Reapproachment With the Catholic Church
Bismarck & Pope Leo XIII

5 German Gov’t Chancellor- Bismarck Upper house - Reichstag Bismarck says won’t be bound by parl majority - tariffs won support of industrialists

6 Socialism feared revolutionary activity
Used fear -attempt on WI life (not socialists) to restrict socialist rights Outlawed Social Dem Party-organized underground Bismarck's new tactic…..

7 Social reform Win support of workers by Social security laws …
National sickness and accident Insurance 1883 1889 old age pensions/ retirement benefits 1st of its kind --- Eng to follow soon Result - they still vote socialist??? -Marxist Social Dem party legal again under WII Many in Reichstag in the 1890’s/ most in 1912

8 Bismarck Manipulating the Reichstag

9 Kaiser Wilhelm II [r ]

10 Queen Victoria’s Grandchildren

11 “Dropping the Pilot” [1890]

12 Kaiser Wilhelm II

13 Eastern Europe in the Last Half of the 19c

14 Differing Nationalities in the Austrian Empire

15 Austrian Imperial Flag

16 Emperor Franz Josef I [r. 1848-1916]

17 The Compromise of 1867: The Dual Monarchy  Austria-Hungary- Ausgleich
The Hungarian Flag

18 Russian Imperial Flag

19 Nicholas I [r ] Autocracy! Orthodoxy! Nationalism!

20 1850s Russia was poor agricultural society
90% of the people lived off the land Serfdom was still the basic institution Emancipation Edict - in 1861 abolished serfdom Massive investment didn’t even help, but did encourage social reformers

21 Modernization of Russia
1850s Russia was poor agricultural society 90% of the people lived off the land Lacked a solid middle class Serfdom was still the basic institution Very backward country – over 200 nationalities – majority were poor peasants Majority under 10 and illiterate intelligensia

22 Alexander II [r. 1855-1881] Defeat in the Crimean War.
Reform from above Emancipation of the Russian serfs [ ].

23 Crimean War British and French ill-founded fear of Russian strength: “Russia is the strongest state in Europe!” Illusion of Russian expansionism “Russia plans to carve up Turkey” Ill-founded belief the Turkey was collapsing

24 WAKE UP CALL This defeat marked a turning point for Russia and the start of the Great Reform Russia needed new railroads, better weapons, and a reorganized army Alexander II told serf owners reform needed to come from above Emancipation Edict - in 1861 abolished serfdom Emancipated serfs received about half the land and had 49 years to pay The land was owned by a village (mir) and the village was responsible for individual payments

25 The govt. hoped collectivism would create unity
In reality it made it hard to progress No incentive to improve if didn’t ind. own Zemstvos to run local govt. in the rural areas Courts were reformed, equality of law was established, education was liberalized, and censorship relaxed

26 1870s the Populists wanted more reforms and resorted to terrorism
Peoples will

27 Industrialization Until the 20th century Russia made great progress in industry not politics After 1860 the govt. encouraged and subsidized railway companies By 1880 Russia had a well developed rail-equipment industry Industries grew in the suburbs of Moscow and St. Petersburg Industrial success strengthened the military as the country expanded south and east 1881 Alexander II was assassinated

28 Alexander III [r. 1881-1894] Reactionary. Slavophile.
“Russification” program. Jews  forced migration to the Pale

29 Reform ended with Alexander III, a strict reactionary – ruled with iron fist
Political modernization froze but economic industrial modernization increased with the industrial surge of the 1890s. Pogroms – Russification Trans-Siberian railroad

30 Sergei Witte, minister of finance
Witte saw Russia’s industrial backwardness as a hindrance to Russia’s greatness He established tariffs and put the country on the gold standard of the rest of the world He used the west to catch the west i.e. foreigners to use their technology and capital to build up southern Russia In eastern Ukraine foreigners built huge plants and factories, steel and coal industries from scratch By 1900 only the US., Germany, and Great Britain were producing more coal/steel Small middle class develops

31 Forced Migration of Russia’s Jews

32 A heterogeneous empire
Russian Expansion A heterogeneous empire

33 Political Philosophies
Liberals wanted reforms based on western models Marxists wanted to overthrow the monarchy Populists wanted a massive peasant revolt Any trouble makers were arrested or forced into exile

34 Pre-Revolutionary Russia
Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative political institutions Nicholas II became tsar in 1884 Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God Russo-Japanese War (1904) – defeat led to pol. instability Pre-Revolutionary Russia

35 1903 Russia established a sphere of influence over Chinese Manchuria and were looking at northern Korea 1904 Japan launched a surprise attack, defeating Russia in the Russo-Japanese War at Port Arthur Distance and size works against Russia and creates further peasant dissent 1905 Russia accepted a humiliating defeat

36 Revolution of 1905 January 1905 a crowd demonstrated at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to petition the tsar for reform Troops opened fire, killing and wounding hundreds. This massacre became known as “Bloody Sunday"

37 The image of the tsar was shattered
October 1905 a general strike paralyzed the country and forced the govt. to give in The czar issued the October Manifesto granting full civil liberties and creating the Duma (national representative body) The Social Democrats rejected it and the workers protested in Moscow in December 1905 The tsar dismissed the Duma, only to find a more radical one elected in 1907 The tsar and his advisors rewrote the voting laws and gave more power to the landed aristocracy With Duma full of aristocrats the tsar was assured of support

38 In 1906 Peter Stolypin was appointed chief advisor
August Decree established military courts which hung almost 1,000 people Wanted to preserve aristocracy but pushed agrarian reform Peasants, even more agitated, were still a caste apart In 1911 Stolypin was assassinated The Revolution of 1905 had changed little in Russia- the tsar still controlled the army and the aristocracy controlled the govt. with the tsar having veto power

39 The Ottoman Empire -- Late 19c “The Sicker Man of Europe”

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