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Common Assessment Study Guide Mid-Term Qtr.1. Monotheism’s Influence on Democracy The duty of the individual and the community to combat oppression The.

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Presentation on theme: "Common Assessment Study Guide Mid-Term Qtr.1. Monotheism’s Influence on Democracy The duty of the individual and the community to combat oppression The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common Assessment Study Guide Mid-Term Qtr.1

2 Monotheism’s Influence on Democracy The duty of the individual and the community to combat oppression The worth of the individual Equality of people before God

3 Jewish & Christian beliefs DIFFER from the Greco-Roman Tradition Belief in one God

4 Philosopher kings Plato believed: An ideal society is where the government should be controlled by a class of “Philosopher Kings” Aristotle believed: The government’s actions must adhere to the law Photo: (left) Plato and (right) Aristotle

5 Rome’s Political Legacy (lasting contributions) Republic – citizens elected leaders to make government decisions Laws should be written down Laws should apply equally to all citizens

6 John Locke From England Life, Liberty and the pursuit of property Bases of Declaration of Independence People have the right to rebel against an oppressive government

7 Republic Republic – citizens elected leaders to make government decisions

8 Constitutional Monarch England’s system by the end of 1600s Est. by the Glorious Rev (1689) Monarchy and Parliament shared power Other countries start to copy this (e.g. France after Revolution and Napoleon)

9 Magna Carta 1215 A. D. Nobles limited the power of the king (monarchy) in England Protects individual rights

10 Thomas Hobbes From England Believed that people are selfish and wicked The government needs to control the people through a social contract

11 Social Contract Enlightenment ideas of government obligation to their people Agreement between the people and the government People will follow the laws and leadership of the government The government will make laws and lead with fairness and justice

12 Montesquieu French Developed the idea of separation of powers

13 Jean-Jacque Rousseau French The only good government was one that was freely formed by the people Similar beliefs to John Locke. Both believed the right in citizens to decide the best form of government

14 Voltaire French Tolerance Freedom of religions beliefs Freedom of speech reason

15 Beccaria Italian Torture should be outlawed People accused of a crime should have a speedy trial Laws existed to keep order

16 Wollstonecraft English Believed in fighting for women’s rights Women should devote themselves to education

17 Declaration of Independence Declared American colonists’ independent from Britain Written by Jefferson Formation of the U.S.A.

18 English Bill of Rights Passed by Parliament in1689 and accepted by William and Mary Formal summary of the rights and liberties of the people *Similar to the Magna Carta. Both reinforced limiting the power of the monarchy

19 Enlightenment influence on American Revolution Rousseau, Voltarie, and Locke’s views that the people have a right to establish their own government Led to the colonists revolting against the British

20 Old Regime & Third Estate 1 st Estate – Clergy 2 nd Estate – nobles 3 rd Estate – Bourgeoisie, urban workers & peasant. *Paid most of the taxes

21 France’s Financial Problems Over-spending by king and queen taxes

22 Declaration of Rights of Man Influenced by the Enlightenment ideas Influence by the Declaration of Independence (U.S.) Written in 1789 (after the Declaration of Independence) Provided freedom of speech/religion

23 Reign of Terror Was imposed by the committee of public safety Robespierre was the leader

24 How Napoleon took Power There had been ten years of instability after the French Rev. in France ( ) *AT THE TIME, THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT WAS WEAK Backed by the military Coup d’etat

25 Scorched Earth Policy Russian troops used this policy to stop Napoleon Burn everything before Napoleon could take over and use farms, livestock, crops, etc.

26 Congress of Vienna’s Outcome After Napoleon and France’s defeat. How should Europe go forward? Its leaders created a balance of power in Europe

27 Concert of Europe Alliances among European nations in the 19 th century Primary concern was to lessen the possibility of revolution A balance of power in Europe was created

28 U.S. Dec. of Independence & French Dec. of the Rights of Man Both emphasized the idea that governments must protect the rights of people

29 American and French Revolutions Influenced Latin American countries in the 1800s Other countries were influenced to rebel against their colonial rulers through-out the 1900s

30 American Revolution Produced a lasting constitution France did not French Rev France’s lasting Constitution 1848

31 Enlightenment Influence on South America Revolution started in other countries around the world South American countries used the same ideas of the enlightened philosophes Simon Bolivar The creoles

32 Leader inspired by the ideas of the American Revolution and the Enlightenment Simon Bolivar

33 The independence movement in Latin America was led in large part by Creoles


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